surface mining-used to obtain approximately 60% of the coal mined in the U.S.
-30m or so of the surface
-first removes soil, subsoil, then rock stratastrip mining-a trench dug to extract coal
-coal is scraped out of the ground and loaded into railroad cars or trucks
-then a new trench is dug parallel to the old one and the overburden from the new trench is put into the old trench; creating a spoil bank,a hill of loose rocksubsurface mining-obtains 40% of the coal mined in the U.S.
-coal is deeper in the ground or runs deeps into the ground from an outcrop on a hillside
-mined from underground
-advantages(over surface mining); less expensive, safer for miners, and generally allows for a more complete removal of coal from the ground
-disadvantages; disturbs the lan