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Spinal Canal

Runs from the base of the skull to the sacrum

Spinal cord

Runs from the medulla oblongata to the 1st Lumbar conus medullaris

lordotic ( concave)

the curve of the lumbar and cervical spine is

kyphotic( convex)

the curve of the thoracic and sacral spine is

thoracic and pelvis(sacaral) present at birth CONVEX

Primary curves are

cervical and lumbar (concave) or lordotic devolop after birth COCAVE

secondary curves are

Kyphosis (convex)

abnormal curve in thoracic (hump)

Lordosis (concave) or swayback

increase in concavity in lumbar area


Abnormal ( lateral) curvature of the spine

Annulus Fibrosus

what is the outside of the intervertebral disk

Nucleus Pulposus

what is the inside of the intervertebral disk

Compression fracture

the collapse of a vertebral body most commonly associated with osteoporosis of the thoracic and lumbar spine

Spina Bifida

when the fetal spinal cord does not close duing the 1st month

HNP or slip disk

when the herniated nucleus pulposis protrudes through the outer layer in the spinal canal


Study of bones


Treatment of joints

Slightly moveable

Amphiarthrotic joints

Freely moveable

Diarthrotic joints


Dense fibrous membrane that covers the bone but not the articulating surfaces

Cancellous Bone

Highly pourous cantains red bone marrow (production of rbc)

Cortical Bone

Superfical thin layer of compact bone

15-20 degrees

angle for ap axial c-spine

15 to 20 degrees cephalad body at a 45 degree

angle for ap oblique c spine which direction

Level of C-4 the adams apple

cr enters at what level for a c spine

Clay shoveler's fracture

caused by extreme hyperflexion(c1-t1)

Hangmans fracture

caused by (extreme hyperextension) anterior displacement of C-2

Jefferson fracture

axial loading fracture of (FX to C1

Compression fracture

frequently associated with osteoporosis and involves a collapse of the vertebral body

60-72 inches

What is the distance for a lateral swimmers

40 inches and at T-7

ap t spine lateral t spine what is the sid and cr placement

20 degress from mid saggital line which give a 70 degree angle for zygopopseal joint

what is the angle for an ap or pa oblique t spine

Costotransverse joint

Where the tubercles of the ribs articulates with the transverse process

Costovertebral joint

Where the vertebal articulates with the head of the rib

Demi facets

found of each thoracic vertebra body which is a partial facet accepts the head of the rib

33 bones

In the vertebral spine of a child how many bones

26 bones

In the berteveral spine of a adult how many bones

right downside

which zygapophyseal joint is open in an rao t-spine

Right upside

which zygapophyseal is best demostrated with a lpo t-spine

right intervertbral foramina upside

which foramina are demostrated with a lpo c-spine

left intervertral downside

which foramina are demostrated with a lao c-spine

intervertebral foramina

with a c-spine what is shown with a 45 degree oblique

Zygapophyseal joints and intervertebral disk joint space

with a c-spine what is shown with a lateral

zygapophyseal joints

with a t-spine what is shown with a 70 degreee oblique

intervertebal foramina

with a t-spine what is shown with a lateral

towards the head

where should the anode be over for a t- spine

in the lumbar area l1 to l5

the five largest vertebrae in the body are where

in the lumbar

injuries to disk are most common where


the iliac crest is at what vertbrae location


Lower costal margin is at what vertbrae location

side to side

concerning the back bending is what kind of motion

because urine will obscure the view

why should you ask a patient to use the bathroom before a l-spine series

inform the doctor may need obliques as well

If a patient has pain running down their leg what may need to be done other then a ap lumbar

iliac crest and mid saggital

What is the cr location for an ap lumbar spine

30 degrees

what what angle does the si joint open posteriorly

5 to 8 degrees cadad

if no support is used for a lateral lumbar spine what should the angel be

1.5 inches below iliac crest and 2 inches posterior asis

where is the cr for an L5-S1 spot

15 degrees cephalad and 2 inches above ps and centered mid saggital

what is the angle and cr location for a ap sacrum

10 degrees caudad and 2 inches above ps and centered mid saggital

what is the angle and location for a coccyx ap

a lead board or lead mat

when on the table for a tspine or lspine lateral what should be used to gather scatter and clear up the image

30- 35 degrees cephalad to a point centered 2 inches below the asis

what is the angle and location of the cr for a ap axial si joint

25 to 30 degrees with the cr 1 inch medial to the upside asis

for and oblique si joint exam what is the roatation of the body and cr location

10 degrees cephalad for females 15 degrees cephalad for males

what would be the angle for a tspine if no sponge is used to correct sloping

Ankylosing spondylitis

Rheumatioid arthritis variant involing the si joints of the spine


forward displacement of a vertebra over a lower vertebra usually L5-S1


breaking down of of a vertebra


incomplete or partial dislocation

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