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Annual Assessed Biology EOC Flash Card Review
Terms in this set (90)
1. all living things are made of cell
2. cell are the basic units of structure and function in living.
3. New cells are produced from existing cells
Plant membrane for additional support
Plant vs Animal Cells
Plant and Animal Cells are very similar but plant cells have a cell wall, chloroplast, vacuoles while animal cells does not.
Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Cells
Eukaryotic Cells has a nucleus and Prokaryotic Cells does not
General Structure of Eukaryotic Cells
plasma membrane, cytoplasm , ribosomes
the tissue in higher plants that constitutes the vascular system, consisting of phloem and xylem, by which water and nutrients are conducted throughout the plant.
anchors plants in the ground, holds the soil in place, and prevents erosion. Roots also transports these materials to the rest of the plant , store food, and hold the plants upright against forces such as wind and rain
Provides a support system for the plant body.
A defensive system that protects the plant against predators and disease.
Stems also produce leaves and reproductive organs such as flowers.
It has roots, stem, leaves, dermal tissue (protective outer covering), Vascular Tissue (Xylem, Phloem), Ground Tissue (Produces and store sugars and support for the plants)
the central trunk of the mammalian brain, consisting of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain, and continuing downward to form the spinal cord.
a disorder of structure or function in a human, animal, or plant, especially one that produces specific signs or symptoms or that affects a specific location and is not simply a direct result of physical injury.
the ability not to be affected by something, especially adversely.
Thickness of blood
Pressure exerted by the blood upon the walls of the blood vessels, especially arteries, usually measured by means of an expressed in millimeters of mercury.
Nonspecific Immune Response
responses cells can carry out without learning (innate immunity)
dose of a disabled or destroyed pathogen used to stimulate a long-term immune defense against the pathogen. A weakened form of the virus is given to the person so their immune system can build up immunity to the virus.
Significance of environmental factors (prevention of infectious disease)
Environmental factor or ecological factor or ecofactor is any factor, abiotic or biotic, that influences living organisms. Abiotic factors include ambient temperature, amount of sunlight, and pH of the water soil in which an organism lives.
Significance of genetic factors (active immunity vs passive immunity)
has helped control population growth and
has potential of solving problems related to inheritable diseases
Trends in Hominid Evolution-Brain Size
Bipedalism, increased cranial capacity, decreased jaw size, decreased tooth size, developed communication skills, use of tools
Trends in hominid evolution - Skull Shape
While the late australopithecines were similar to humans anatomically below the neck, their heads were significantly different from ours in several key features. Their adult brain size was about 1/3 that of people today. As a result, the widest part of the skull of these early hominins was below the brain case. For modern humans, it usually is in the temple region. Early hominin faces were large relative to the size of their brain cases.
Evidence for evolution - Comparative Embryology
can be found in fossil records, geographical distribution, homologous structures, similarities in early development
Evidence for evolution - Molecular biology
can be found in fossil records, geographical distribution, homologous structures, similarities in early development
Distinguishing characteristics Archae
any of a group of single-celled prokaryotic organisms (that is, organisms whose cells lack a defined nucleus) that have distinct molecular characteristics separating them from bacteria (the other, more prominent group of prokaryotes) as well as from eukaryotes
Distinguishing characteristics of Fungi
Decomposers - the best recyclers around.
No chlorophyll - non photosynthetic.
Most multicellular (hyphae) - some unicellular (yeast)
Cell walls made of chitin (kite-in) instead of cellulose like that of a plant.
Are more related to animals than plant kingdom.
Distinguishing characteristics of plantae
Plants are autotrophs, meaning they make their own food through photosynthesis
Shared qualities or Characteristics
Changes in organisms classification
scientific explanations of origins of life
the third, and most common hypothesis in the scientific community, is that life began approximately 3.5 billion years ago as the result of a complex sequence of chemical reactions that took place spontaneously in Earth's atmosphere.
Movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population
Increasing genetic variation
Breeders can increase the genetic variation in a population by inducing mutations, which are the ultimate source of genetic variability.
Inherited variation (crossing over/recombination)
are cause by equal reproduction and by mutations
Analyze patterns of inheritance
Through relatives that carries in dna
A gene that has more than two alleles
A condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive.
combined effect of two or more genes on a single character
the pattern of inheritance that may result from a mutant gene located on either the X or Y chromosome.
Homozygous dominate and heterozygous have the same phenotype but different genotype
DNA unzips into two parts and splits with the cell. In it's new home each side of the DNA strand attack to matching nucleotides to create 2 exact copies. It is important in puberty and other times of growth as it is the reproducing of your cells.
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
mutations that affect a single gene
Similarities in genetic code
scientists in the new field of genomics can look at the entire genome of organisms and see how similar the nucleotides are from one species to another
Biotechnology on the individual
Can help the person survive by technology
Biotechnology on society
can help increased populations
Biotechnology on the environment
Is a range of tools, including traditional breeding techniques, that alter living organisms, or parts of organisms, to make or modify products; improve plants or animals; or develop microorganisms for specific agricultural uses.
Fertilization to birth
female reproductive organs and functions
Ovary produce eggs
Male reproductive organs and functions
Sexual vs. Asexual reproduction
Sexual can live longer than asexual. Asexual produce offspring faster.
Mitosis vs. Meiosis
Mitosis: one division forming 2 identical cells (clones); Meiosis: two divisions forming 4 genetically different cells
Cell cycle m phase
In cells with a nucleus, as in eukaryotes, the cell cycle is also divided into three periods: interphase, the mitotic (M) phase, and cytokinesis.
Mitosis - Anaphase
stage where migration process occurs. chromatid pairs split and the spindle fibers pull each chromosome to poles. nucleus reappears and spindle fibers disappear with 2x as many chromosomes
Uncontrolled cell growth
role of mitosis
development and growth, repair, tissue renewal, asexual production
role of meiosis
It allows sexual reproduction to occur
the number of people, other living organisms, or crops that a region can support without environmental degradation.
Climate changes in ecosystem
Makes plants and animals to migrate or adapt in order to survive.
Change in ecosystem - succession
Provided life for animals and plants
Change in ecosystem - seasonal variations
Seasonal and interannual variation in carbon dioxide exchange and carbon balance in a northern temperate grassland
Consequence of biodiversity - human activity
climate changes are not the only pressure on our environments. Habitat loss and degradation, pollution, overexploitation, and invasive species also play significant roles in biodiversity decline. Note that these pressures are also because of human activity.
Life in Aquatic system - depth
determine where an organism lives in an aquatic ecosystem (light, temperature, salinity).
A system of interlocking and interdependent food chains.
Energy Pyramid (10%) rule
a diagram that compares energy used by producers, primary consumers, and other trophic levels
The continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back
Human impact on environmental system
Environmental rights revolve largely around the idea of a right to a livable environment both for the present and the future generations.
using renewable resources
Better for the environment
Monitoring environment parameter
uman expansion often has a negative impact on the environment. However, these effects can be minimized to achieve sustainability
Primary function of lipids
of the ovarian follicle to produce androgens, mainly androstenedion
Primary function of carbohydrates
provide cushion / protection for the brain
Biochemical Reaction enzymes
color change, precipitation, bubbles, change in pH
Effect of environmental factors
Populations tend to grow exponentially until limited resources cause the growth to slow due to logistic rates
Photosynthesis vs. Cellular Respiration
Photosynthesis: removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, cellular respiration: puts carbon dioxide back into atmosphere. Photosynthesis releases oxygen, and cellular respiration uses that oxygen to release energy from food
located in Photosynthesis. Reactants are Carbon Dioxide, water, sunlight. Products are Glucose and Oxygen
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Role of ATP
Adenosine triphosphate - energy currency of cell
Properties of water
<Its attraction to polar Molecules.
<High heat of vaporization.
<The lower density of ice.
Cohesion refers to water molecules binding to other water molecules.
Can be changed, but all bases of measurement are based off of water
Liquid to solid
A universal solvent is a substance that dissolves most chemicals. Water is called the universal solvent because it dissolves more substances than any other solvent.
Evaluating scientific claims
Looking for scientific claims or statements by scientist
Identifying what is science
the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment.
Defending Conclusions is when you defend your conclusion by evidences that support it
Design scientific investigations
Making a model to illustrate the problem or a thing
Evaluating Scientific Investigations
Look for: primary sources, peer reviewed. Avoid purely anecdotal testimony.
compare microscopes (Light vs electron)
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses beams of electrons instead of rays of visible light to form highly magnified images of tiny areas materials or biological specimens.
While conducting an experiment, a scientist determines that the data do not support the original theory. This determination corresponds to which of the following steps in the scientific method?
Using prior knowledge to make a logical prediction "reading between the lines"
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