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Terms in this set (27)
Exam/ lab findings for conductive hearing loss.
Weber localizes to "bad" ear (ipsilateral).
Rinne: bone>air on affected ear
Pure Tone Audiometry: Gap between bone and air conduction.
Exam/lab findings for sensorineural hearing loss.
Weber test localizes to "good" ear (contralateral).
Rinne: air>bone (both are diminished) on affected ear.
Pure Tone Audiometry: Identical reductions in both air and bone conduction.
3 middle ear causes of CHL
-Tympanic membrane perforation.
Inner ear causes of SNHL?
IAC causes of SNHL?
what 4 things can cause SNHL?
Due to loss/impairment of:
-Outer hair cells
-Inner hair cells
-Spiral ganglion cells
What is otosclerosis? What does it usually cause?
Alteration in bone metabolism of endochondral bone. Bone re-formation of otic capsule.
Mostly: fixation of stapes footplate.
What type of hearing loss does otosclerosis cause?
slowly progressive conductive HL
Treatments for otosclerosis?
Non-surgical: Hearing aids, fluoride.
Surgical: Stapedectomy, stapedotomy.
2 types of otitis media?
-Otitis media w/ effusion.
-Suppurative OM (+/- cholesteatoma).
2 most common orgs for AOM
Pathogenesis of AOM?
Infection and inflamm of nasopharyngeal airway-->ET dysfunction--> Middle ear effusion builds up-->bacterial or viral colonization.
What is chronic suppurative OM?
Chronically draining ear>3 months. +/- cholesteatoma.
Usually w/ perforation of tympanic membrane.
What causes atelectasis?
Long-standing Eustachian tube dysfunction. Associated w/ OM
What is atelectasis?
Deep retraction pockets in tympanic membrane
Complete adhesion of membrane to medial wall.
What is cholesteatoma made of?
keratin (squamous cells)
Histology of cholesteatoma?
Lined by epithelium matrix, surrounded by connective tissue.
Accumulation of desquamated debris
Effect of cholesteatoma on mastoid?
Can erode through mastoid bone.
What type of HL is occupational HL?
Definition of sudden SNHL?
Onset <3 days w/ decrease of >30 dB.
What are 3 etiologies of sudden SNHL?
Vestibular schwannoma 1% cases
What is presbycusis? What causes it?
Symmetric, slowly progressive.
Cumulative effect of aging.
Degenerative process of presbycusis?
-Hair cell loss (inner and outer).
-Mechanical changes (basilar membrane flexibility).
-Spiral ganglion cells.
4 drugs w/ ototoxicity?
What are 3 syndromes causing hereditary SNHL, and inheritance?
What gene do non-syndromic causes of hereditary SNHL involve?
Symptoms of vestibular schwannoma?
Unilateral hearing loss
Possibly facial numbness
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