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Hormones act at specific target organs because these organs contain ___ specific for the hormones.

anterior pituitary; IGFs

Growth hormone, secreted by the ___ ___ gland, stimulates growth of bones and muscle by activating intermediary proteins called ___.

ACTH; adrenal cortex; glandular

___ (hormone) from the anterior pituitary stimulates secretion of cortisol from the ___ ___ (gland). The anterior pituitary consists of ___ tissue.

thyroid; calcitonin

The parafollicular, or C cells, of the ___ gland produce ___, a peptide hormone that lowers plasma calcium levels.

glucagon; insulin; glucagon

Hormones secreted by the pancreatic islets of the pancreas include ___ from the alpha cells and ___ from the beta cells. Which of these hormones raises blood glucose levels? ___

ANP; sodium

Specialized muscle cells in the stria of the heart produce ___ (hormone), which increases excretion of ___ (electrolyte) by the kidneys.

PTH; calcitriol

___ (hormone) promotes the final conversion of vitamin D to ___ in the kidney.

Gastrin; HCL

___ (hormone) produced by G cells in the pyloric antrum stimulates ___ secretion in the stomach.

CRH; dopamine

One ventral hypothalamic hormone (___) is essential for the stress response and another (___) inhibits release of prolactin.


___ (hormone) is a stimulus for sperm production in the male and maturation of ovarian follicles in the female.


___, secreted by the pineal gland, helps regulate body activities with the light/dark cycle.

aldosterone; kidneys; sodium

The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex primarily produces the hormone ___, which acts on the ___ (organ) to increase ___ (electrolyte) reabsorption.

adrenal medulla; catecholamines; epinephrine; norepinephrine

The ___ ___ (gland) is a modified sympathetic ganglion producing the amine hormones known as ___. This category of amine hormones includes both ___ and ___ (two hormones).

testes; testosterone; inhibin

The ___ (organ) produce(s) a steroid hormone called ___ in the interstitial cells and a peptide hormone call ___ that inhibits FSH.

thyroid; Thyroglobulin; T3; T4

Large follicles in the gland (___) contain a protein colloid called ___ from which the hormones ___ and ___ are made. These hormones regulate many metabolic functions and are important for nervous system development and growth.

Supraoptic nucleus & the paraventricular nucleus; oxytocin & vasopessin; ADH

Nuclei in the ventral hypothalamus produce two hotmones that are stored in the posterior pituitary. Name the two nuclei that produce these hormones and name the two hormones, one of which is important for water balance.


Insulin, glucagon, growth hormone, and vasopressin (ADH) are all ___.


T4 (thyroxine), norepinephrine, T3 (triiodothyronine), and epinephrine are all ___.


Estradiol, aldosterone, cortisol, and testosterone are all ___.

preprohormones; secretory vesicles; exocytosis; hydrophilic - no carrier required

Peptide hormones are synthesized as large precursor hormones called ___. The hormones or (prohormones) are stored in ___ ___ and released from the cell by ___. Do peptide hormones require a carrier in the bloodstream?

medulla; amine; tyrosine; calcium; exocytosis; hydrophilic - no carrier needed

Catecholamines are produced in the ___ of the adrenal gland and are classified as ___ hormones because they are derived from ___. Stimulation of the chromaffin cells causes an influx of ___ ions, which causes the vesicles to merge with the plasma membrane and release the hormone by ___. Are catecholamines water soluble or lipid soluble?

T3; T4; tyrosine; 3; less; lipophilic - carriers required

Thyroid hormones include two molecules called ___ and ___. T3 consists of two ___ molecules plus ___ iodine molecules and is (more or less?) abundant than T4. Are carriers required for the transport of thyroid hormones?

cholesterol; enzymes; pregnenolone; diffusion; do; slower; stored (in secretory vesicles)

All steroid hormones are derived from ___; which steroid hormone is produced is determined by the ___ present in the cell. The common precursor molecule for all steroid hormones is ___. Steroid hormones enter the bloodstream by ___ and (do or do not?) require a carrier. The rate of secretion of steroid hormones is (faster or slower?) than that of catecholamines because steroid hormones are not ___.

epinephrine; norepinephrine; adrenal medulla

Preganglionic sympathetic fibers trigger the release of ___ and ___ (hormones) from the ___ ___ (gland). This is an example of neural regulation of hormone secretion.


Two examples of hormonal regulation of hormone secretion include: (1) the negative feedback of T3 and T4 to decrease ___ levels; and (2) the negative feedback of cortisol, which decreases both ___ and ___ levels.

GIP; parasympathetic

Besides increased levels of plasma glucose and amino acids (humoral regulation), increased levels of ___ (hormone) and stimulation of the ___ nervous system also increase plasma insulin levels.

circadian; cortisol; thyroid

Some hormones are released in rhythmic 24-hour patterns known as ___ rhythms. ___ is a hormone allowing stressful stimuli to override this pattern and increase the plasma hormone levels. In contrast, ___ hormones (amine hormones) are an example of large amounts of the hormones being bound to carrier proteins in the plasma, forming a large circulating reservoir. Thus, acute changes do not produce large changes in the plasma levels of these hormones.

liver; kidneys; peptide hormones; catecholamines; thyroid hormones; steroid hormones

The ___ and ___ are the major organs that metabolize hormones. The type of hormone determines how fast they are metabolized. ___ and ___ are rapidly metabolized, while ___ and ___ take longer to metabolize.

hormone; contraction; secretion; transport; synthesis; breakdown

The receptor is activated by the input signal that is the ___. This signal causes a biochemical change in the cell. Name the five possible changes.

peptides; catecholamines; on the the cell membrane

Water-soluble proteins such as ___ and ___ bind to receptors located ______.


What is bound to the G protein in the inactive state? ___ In the active state? ___

adenylate cyclase

What catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cAMP?

hormone; cAMP

What is known as the first messenger? ___ Second messenger? ___

protein kinase A

A molecule of cAMP activates ___ ___ ___, which can phosphorylate many proteins.


A single molecule of a hormone can have a large effect on the cell due to this process, called ___.


What is the enzyme that inactivates cAMP? ___

glycogen; proteins; triglycerides

Insulin decreases plasma glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids by stimulating the conversion of them to their storage form. Name these storage forms.
Glucose -> ____ ; Amino acids -> ___ ; Fatty acids -> ___


Conversion to the storage form is known as ___ metabolism.


After a meal, high levels of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids lead to a/an (decrease or increase?) in insulin secretion.

decrease; increase

The autonomic nervous system also regulates insulin secretion. What effects would the sympathetic and parasympathetic system have on insulin secretion?
Sympathetic -> ___ ; Parasympathetic -> ___

tyrosine kinase

Insulin travels in the blood and binds to what type of receptors on the cell membrane?

10 minutes

What is the approximate half-life of insulin?

glucagon; catabolic

What hormone increases plasma glucose levels? ___. This hormone breaks down the storage forms and this is known as ___ metabolism.


Type (1 or 2?) diabetes is characterized by a resistance of the target cells to insulin. Plasma insulin levels are normal or high.


In type 1 diabetes, the lack of insulin and glycogenolysis in the liver leads to (hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia?).

saturated; glucosuria

With the increase in filtration of glucose at the kidneys, the carriers become ___, and glucose appears in the urine, also known as ___.

osmotic diuretic

Glucose acts as a/an ___ ___, leading to increased urine flow.

plasma lipids; ketones

Increased lipolysis produces an increase in ___ ___, which, when used as fuel, produces ___.

ketosis; ketonuria

The presence of these in plasma and urine is known respectively as ___ and ___.

steroid; thyroid; in the cell

Lipid-soluble hormones such as ___ and ___ hormones bind to receptors located ___.


Once the hormone binds to the receptor, the ___ dissociates from the receptor complex.

transcription factors

The hormone-receptor complexes act as ___ ___.


The receptor-hormone complex then binds to ___.

enzymes (proteins)

The mRNA produces ___ that catalyze biochemical reactions in the cell.

steroid; ^ gluconeogenesis & glycogenolysis; ^ lipolysis & protein breakdown; enhances vasoconstriction; inhibits inflammation & immune response

Cortisol is classified as a/an ___ hormone. Name four major actions of cortisol: 1. ___ 2. ___ 3. ___ 4.___ These actions are important for the stress response.

regulating metabolic rate; alter carb, lipid, & protein metabolism; essential for growth; essential for nervous system development & function

The main function of thyroid hormones is: ___. Three other specific functions include: 1. ___ 2. ___ 3. ___.

endocrine/epithelial; TSH; FSH; LH; ACTH; GH; PRL

The anterior pituitary is composed of ___ tissue. Name the six classic hormones whose functions are well known. 1.___ 2. ___ 3. ___ 4. ___ 5. ___ 6.___

ventral; anterior; hypophyseal portal veins; infundibulum

TRH, GNRH, CRH, etc., are known as ___ hypothalamic hormones that regulate the function of the ___ pituitary. The hormones are released into capillary beds and carried directly to the pituitary by the ___ ___ ___, located in the ___.

oxytocin; vasopressin (ADH); supraoptic; paraventicular; posterior; action potential

___ and ___, the posterior pituitary hormones, are synthesized in the ___ and ___ nuclei of the hypothalamus. They are stored in the axon terminals located in the ___ pituitary. Similar to neurotransmitters, a/an ___ ___ in the neuron causes their release.


In negative feedback, the target hormone feeds back to alter the release of the anterior or hypothalamic hormones, thus (increasing or decreasing?) its own release.

T3 and T4

Give an example of a hormone that has negative feedback mainly to the anterior pituitary.


Give an example of a hormone that has negative feedback to both the anterior pituitary and the ventral hypothalamus.

dopamine; estrogen

Prolactin is unique in that the main ventral hypothalamic hormone regulating its secretion, ___, inhibits its release. ___ (hormone_ increases prolactin release. Very high levels of this hormone during pregnancy actually block the effect of prolactin on milk production.

thyroid; growth

___ hormones are necessary fot the release of ___ hormone. This is an example of modulation of a hormone by a target hormone of another series.

oxytocin; vasopressin (ADH)

Suckling of an infant causes milk letdown by stimulating what hormone? ___ Changes in osmolarity detected by chemically sensitive neurons in the hypothalamus will alter what hormone's level? ___.

circadian; early morning

Cortisol release is synchronized by the light/dark cycle and has a 24-hour pattern of secretion known as ___ rhythm. Levels are highest at what part of the day? ___.

growth; carrier proteins; lipophilic

Besides controlling levels of T3 and T4, TSH also promotes ___ of the thyroid gland. T3 and T4 are carried in the bloodstream bound to ___ ___ because they are (hydrophilic or lipophilic?).

diffusion; mainly in the nucleus; tyrosine; iodine

T3 and T4 enter the target cells by ___ and bind to receptors located ______. T3 and T4 are synthesized from ___ and ___.

myxedema; lethergy; low BMR; low-normal heart rate; feeling cold; weight gain

Which of the following would be symptoms of hypothyroidism, also known as ___?
lethargy or hyperexcitability? high BMR or low BMR?
high heart rate or low-normal heart rate?
feeling cold or sweating? weight loss or weight gain?

primary; goiter

Lack of dietary iodine would cause (primary or secondary?) hypothyroidism and the patient would probably get an iodine-deficient ___.

hydrophilic; does not; on the membrane; tyrosine; 10 seconds

Epinephrine is a (lipophilic or hydrophilic?) hormone. Thus it (does or does not?) require a protein carrier and the receptors at the target cell are located ______. Epinephrine is synthesized from ___ and has a very short half-life of ___.

pheochromocytoma; sweating; ^BP; ^ blood glucose; ^ HR; ^ TPR

___ is a condition in which there is hypersecretion of catecholamines by a tumor in the adrenal medulla. Which of the following symptoms would be present in a patient with this condition?
sweating or cool dry skin? low BP or ^ BP?
low blood glucose or ^ blood glucose? low HR or ^ HR?
low TPR or ^TPR?

lipphilic; does; inside the cell; cholesterol; 90 minutes

Cotisol is a (lipophilic or hydrophilic?) hormone. Thus it (does or does not?) require a protein carrier and the receptors on the target organ are located ___. Cortisol is synthesized by ___ and has a half-life of ___.

Cushing's disease; ACTH; Cushing's syndrome

Hypercortisolism is better known as ___ ___, which is due to a hypersecreting tumor in the anterior pituitary. What hormone is being hypersecreted? ___. Hypercortisolism from all other causes, such as glucocorticoid drugs, is known as ___ ___.

Addison's disease; cortisol; aldosterone

Primary adrenal insufficiency is better known as ___ ___. What two hormones are deficient? ___ and ___.

Addison's disease

The following symptoms would be characteristic of which disease? ___ ___
low blood pressure, decreased plasma sodium, and hypoglycemia

Cushing's disease

The following symptoms would be characteristic of which disease? ___ ___
high blood pressure, poor wound healing, and hyperglycemia

R; P; P; R; R

Classify the following as either port of the rapid response (R) to stress mediated by the sympathetic nervous system or the prolonged response (P) of the endocrine system.
___ maintains gas exchange
___ maintains fuel levels
___ maintains body defenses
___ redirects blood flow
___ makes fuel available

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