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41 terms

Biology Chapter 3

Essential Biology
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Organic Compounds
compounds that contain carbon
Organic Chemistry
the study of organic compounds
Hydrocarbons
organic molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms
Functional Groups
in an organic molecule, the groups of atoms that usually participate in chemical reactions
Macromolecules
on a molecular scale, many of life's molecules are gigantic
Polymers
large molecules made by stringing together many smaller molecules called monomers
Monomer
small molecules
Dehydration Reaction
the process of cells linking monomers together
Hydrolysis
the process of digesting giant molecules to make their monomers available to your cells, which can then rebuild the monomers into your own brand of macromolecules.
Carbohydrates
in animals they serve as a primary source of dietary energy; in plants, they are used as a building material to for much or the plant body
Monosaccharides
simple sugar
Isomers
molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structures
Disaccharide
double sugar, is constructed from two monosaccharides through a dehydration reaction
Polysaccharides
long chains of sugar units--polymers or monosaccharides
Glycogen
animals store excess sugar in the for of a polysaccharide
Cellulose
the most abundant organic compound on Earth, forms cable-like fibrils in the tough walls that enclose plant cells and is a major component of wood
Hydrophilic
which literally means "water loving"; hydrophilic molecules adhere to water to their surface
Lipid
in contrast to carbohydrates and most other biological molecules, lipids are hydrophobic
Hydrophobic
means that they do not mix with water
Fat
consists largely of molecules of trglyceride
Tryglyceride
made of a glycerol molecule joined with three fatty acid molecules via dehydration reactions
Unsaturated
the fewer than the maximum number of hydrogens at the location of the double bond
Saturated
meaning that they contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms
Atherosclerosis
diets high in saturated fats may contribute to cardiovascular disease by promoting atherosclerosis
Hydrogenentation
the process that the manufacturer can convert unsaturated fats to saturated fats by hydrogen
Trans Fat
a type of unsaturated fat that is even more unhealthy than saturated fat
Steroids
very different from fats in structure and function; the carbon skeleton of a steroid is bent to form four fused rings
Anabolic Steroids
are synthetic variants of testosterone, the male sex hormone
Protein
a polymer constructed from amino acid monomers
Amino Acid
consists of a central carbon atom bonded to four covalent partners (carbon always forms 4 covalent bonds)
Peptide Bond
the bond between adjacent amino acids
Polypeptide
proteins usually consist of 100 or more amino acids, forming a chain
Primary Structure
the specific amino acid sequence
Denaturation
the process of an unfavorable change in temperature, pH, or some other quality of the environment can cause a protein to unravel and lose its natural shape
Nucleic Acids
are information storage molecules that provide the directions for building proteins
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid; double stranded
RNA
Ribonucleic Acid; single stranded
Nucleotides
nucleic acids are polymers made from monomers
Nitrogenous Base
made of one or two rings
Sugar-Phosphate Backbone
a repeating pattern of sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate, with the bases hanging off the backbone like appendages
Double Helix
A molecule of DNA in double-stranded sequence, with two polynucleotides wrapped around each other to from _______

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