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Essential Biology

Amino Acid

consists of a central carbon atom bonded to four covalent partners (carbon always forms 4 covalent bonds)

Anabolic Steroids

are synthetic variants of testosterone, the male sex hormone


diets high in saturated fats may contribute to cardiovascular disease by promoting atherosclerosis


in animals they serve as a primary source of dietary energy; in plants, they are used as a building material to for much or the plant body


the most abundant organic compound on Earth, forms cable-like fibrils in the tough walls that enclose plant cells and is a major component of wood

Dehydration Reaction

the process of cells linking monomers together


the process of an unfavorable change in temperature, pH, or some other quality of the environment can cause a protein to unravel and lose its natural shape


double sugar, is constructed from two monosaccharides through a dehydration reaction


Deoxyribonucleic Acid; double stranded

Double Helix

A molecule of DNA in double-stranded sequence, with two polynucleotides wrapped around each other to from _______


consists largely of molecules of trglyceride

Functional Groups

in an organic molecule, the groups of atoms that usually participate in chemical reactions


animals store excess sugar in the for of a polysaccharide


organic molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms


the process that the manufacturer can convert unsaturated fats to saturated fats by hydrogen


the process of digesting giant molecules to make their monomers available to your cells, which can then rebuild the monomers into your own brand of macromolecules.


which literally means "water loving"; hydrophilic molecules adhere to water to their surface


means that they do not mix with water


molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structures


in contrast to carbohydrates and most other biological molecules, lipids are hydrophobic


on a molecular scale, many of life's molecules are gigantic


small molecules


simple sugar

Nitrogenous Base

made of one or two rings

Nucleic Acids

are information storage molecules that provide the directions for building proteins


nucleic acids are polymers made from monomers

Organic Chemistry

the study of organic compounds

Organic Compounds

compounds that contain carbon

Peptide Bond

the bond between adjacent amino acids


large molecules made by stringing together many smaller molecules called monomers


proteins usually consist of 100 or more amino acids, forming a chain


long chains of sugar units--polymers or monosaccharides

Primary Structure

the specific amino acid sequence


a polymer constructed from amino acid monomers


Ribonucleic Acid; single stranded


meaning that they contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms


very different from fats in structure and function; the carbon skeleton of a steroid is bent to form four fused rings

Sugar-Phosphate Backbone

a repeating pattern of sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate, with the bases hanging off the backbone like appendages

Trans Fat

a type of unsaturated fat that is even more unhealthy than saturated fat


made of a glycerol molecule joined with three fatty acid molecules via dehydration reactions


the fewer than the maximum number of hydrogens at the location of the double bond

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