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42 terms

Chapter 4 - A Tour of the Cell

Pacific Ridge School
STUDY
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Cell junctions
connections between cells that hold the cells together as a unit
Cell theory
states that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells
cell wall
a protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists. protects and helps cell maintain shape
Central Vacuole
A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development
chloroplasts
sites of photosynthesis; found only in plants and algae
Chromatin
Within the nucleus; a fibrous material made of DNA and proteins
cilia
short hair-like projections that help the cell move
Cristae
An infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP
cytoplasm
Everything inside a eukaryotic cell between the plasma membrane and the nulceus (goo inside of cell).
Cytosol
A semifluid substance within the membrane of cells; where organelles are found
Electron microscope
A microscope that instead of using light, focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or on its surface
Endomembrane System
The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
within the cytoplasm, little net. extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cell
eukaryotic cells
has a membrane -enclosed nucleus and other membrane- enclosed organelles
extracellular matrix (ECM)
animal cells produe. layer helps hold together in tissues and protects and supports the plasma membrane. main component of ECM is glycoprotein.
flagella
long tail-like projections that help the orgainsm move around
Fluid mosaic
the phospholipids of the plasma membrane are in constant motion
Food Vacuoles
formed by phacogytosis; pinches off of the plasma membrane and encloses a food particle
Golgi apparatus
accepts proteins and transports them to where they need to be. it also gets rid of sugar (glyco. - protein)
grana
(granum) chloroplast's solar power packs
Light microscope
works by passing visible light through the specimen such as a microogrganism or a thin slice of animal or plant tissue
Lysosomal Storage Disease
A hereditary disorder associated with abnormal lysosomes, where the sufferer is missing one of the lysosomal digestive enzymes
lysosome
a cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes
magnification
an increase in the apparent size of an object
Matrix
the body substance in which tissue cells are embedded
microtubules
the thickest of the three types of fibers that make up cytoskeleton;
Mitochondria
sites of cellular respiration (catabolic process that generates ATP); uses oxygen
Nuclear Envelope
The membrane in eukaryotes that encloses the nucleus, separating it from the cytoplasm
nucleotis
center of nucleus which holds DNA and where ribosomes turn messenger RNA into proteins
nucleus
library-keeps DNA/info necessary for everything in cell to function
Plasma membrane
at the boundary of every cell, functions as a selective barrier; made of phospholipids and proteins
prokaryotic cells
lacks a membrane--enclosed nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles Ex. bacteria and archae
Resolving power
A measure of the clarity of the image; it is the minimum distance two points can be separated and still be distinguished as two separate points
Organelles
tiny structures that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stay alive
ribosomes
turn messenger RNA into proteins
rough ER
has ribosomes that stud the outer surface of the membrane
scanning electron microscope (SEM)
uses an electron beam to study the surface architecture of a cell or other specimen
Smooth ER
part of the ER where the cytoplasmic surface lacks ribosomes
stroma
thick fluid enclosed by the inner membrane of a chloroplast
Transmission electron microscope (TEM)
an electron microscope commonly used to study the internal structure of cells
Transport Vesicle
A tiny membranous sac in a cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell
vacuole
stores water and nutrients for the cell