Terms in this set (78)
Mix of multiple roles
Defines the patterns of interactions between related statuses.
A disability is an example of a social identity that shapes a person's life
Acquired through one's efforts or special skills
Not based on accomplishments or abilities
Sociologists call the different roles attached to a single status a(n)
Role conflict occurs when fulfilling the role expectations of one status makes it difficult to fulfill the role expectations of another status.
Statuses and their related roles determine the structure of the various groups in society. When these statuses and roles are organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society, the group is called a(n)
Occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the role expectations of a single status
A socially defined position in a group or in society
The network of interrelated statuses and roles that guide human interaction.
One status tends to take rank above all others. This status that plays the greatest role in shaping a person's life and determining his or her social identity is called a(n)
Ascribed statuses are not based on an individual's abilities, efforts, or accomplishments.
Social structure provides a society with temporary traits.
The socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role are called role performances
The behavior expected of someone occupying a particular status.
The "argument culture" is typically learned at an early age.
Which of the following is not a form of accommodation?
Conflict can strengthen group loyalty.
The "argument culture" does not accommodate for conflicting views.
Which of the following is part of the basis of a capitalist economic system?
The rules of conduct are never ignored in a conflict.
Which of the following is not a form of social interaction?
Theory that holds that people are motivated by self-interests in their interactions with other people
the idea that if you do something for someone then that person owes you something in return
Interaction undertaken in an effort to receive a reward or a return for actions
Competition occurs when two or more people or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain
the deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone, or to harm another person.
Forms include compromise, truce, or mediation.
A group is a set of two or more people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who possess some degree of common identity
Subsistence strategies are ways in which a society uses technology to provide for the needs of its members
hunting and gathering societies
Hunting and gathering societies are types of societies characterized by the daily collection of wild plants and the hunting of wild animals as the main form of subsistence
division of labor
Division of labor refers to specialization by individuals or groups in the performance of specific economic activities
Bartering is the practice of exchanging one good for another
Urbanization is the concentration of the population in cities.
Mechanical solidarity refers to close-knit social relationships common in preindustrial societies that result when a small group of people share the same values and perform the same tasks
Organic solidarity refers to impersonal social relationships, common in industrial societies, that arise with increased job specialization
Horticultural societies use animals to accelerate food production.
Pastoral societies are closely linked with postindustrial societies.
What is the difference between a horticultural society and an agricultural society?
A horticultural society's source of food is through fruits & vegetables. An agricultural society uses animals to accelerate food production as well as barter for goods and services.
Into what three broad categories do sociologists place societies?
preindustrial, industrial, and postindustrial
An aggregate is a group of people gathered in the same place at the same time who lack organization or lasting patterns of interaction
A social category is a group of people who share a common trait or status
A dyad is a group with two members
A triad is a three-person group.
An e-community is a community of people who interact through the Internet or other electronic communication
A social network is a web of relationships that is formed by the sum total of an individual's interactions with other people
Leaders are people who influence the attitudes and opinions of others
Instrumental leaders are leaders who are task-oriented.
Leaders who are emotion-oriented
A basketball team is an example of this type of group.
Strong communication and long term interaction are normal in this type of group.
What is the difference between an in-group and an out-group?
The group that a person belongs to and identifies with is called an in-group. Any group that the person does not belong to or identify with is called an out-group.
According to David Orenstein, which two things are the foundation for social life?
groups and group activities
Leaders are people who influence the attitudes and opinions of others. What are the two categories that studies suggest that leaders fall into?
instrumental leaders and expressive leaders
Group without clear boundaries or common identity.
What is the difference between a formal group and an informal group?
In a formal group the structure, goals, and activities of the group are clearly defined. In an informal group there is no official structure or established rules of conduct.
How large can a small group be?
Sociologists have found that 15 is the largest number of people that can work well in one group.
All of the following are examples of expressive leaders except
A formal organization is a large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals
Bureaucracy is a ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures.
Rationality is the process of subjecting every feature of human behavior to calculation, measurement, and control.
A voluntary association is a nonprofit organization formed to pursue some common interest.
Iron Law of Oligarchy
Tendency of organizations to become increasingly dominated by small groups of people
Today we use the word bureaucracy to refer to any organization that has many departments.
A complaint about bureaucracies is the ________ often involved in dealing with them.
Laurence Peter believes that in a bureaucracy employees often are promoted _____ their level of competence.
The German sociologist Max Weber developed a model of bureaucracy that is rarely used by sociologists today.
False, used a lot
Is dominance by small groups seen as a strength or weakness of a bureaucracy?
The specialization by individuals or groups in the performance of specific economic activities is
Division of Labor
Stability, clear expectations, and creating order are all strengths of bureaucracies.
A ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures
Large secondary group formed to achieve specific goals.
According to the Peter Principle, in a hierarchy no one ever rises to their level of incompetence.
Which of the following does the statement, "People are promoted into positions they are not qualified to perform" relate to ?
the Peter Principle
A voluntary association is typically a nonprofit organization formed to pursue some common interest.
An example of a weakness in bureaucracies.
The tendency of organizations to become increasingly dominated by small groups of people
Iron Law of Oligarchy