Unit 5 Vocab.

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Terms in this set (...)

Agribusiness
The system of commercial farming found in MDC in which farming is integrated into a large food production industry.
Agricultural Hearths
The areas where agriculture fist diffused from.
Agriculture
The deliberate tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber.
Biotechnology
The use of genetically altered crops in agriculture and DNA manipulation in livestock in order to increase production.
Cereal Grains
Grains that are used to produce cereal, such as oat, wheat, and barley.
Columbian Exchange
When products were carried both ways across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
Commercial Agriculture
The production of food surpluses, with most crops destined for sale to people outside the farmer's family.
Desertification
When land is left fallow for so long it goes into desert-like conditions.
Dispersed Settlement Pattern
When individual farm houses are spaced far apart from each other.
Enclosure
Fencing or hedging large blocks of land for experiments with new techniques of farming.
Erosion
When land gets cleared away due to natural processes.
Extensive Agriculture
This is characterized by a low input of land per unit of land
Green Revolution
This is the collection of new techniques by the 1970s.
Hamlets, Villages
Small clusters of buildings.
Horticulture
The growing of fruits, veggies, and flowers.
Hunters and Gathers
People who sustain themselves by capturing and hunting animals as well as gathering edible fruits and plants.
Industrial Agriculture
Modern farming that refers to the industrialized production of fish, crop, poultry, and livestock.
Intensive Agriculture
Yields a large amount of output per acre through concentrated farming, but only provides a subsistence living for farmers.
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
Irrigation
The channeling to water to fields.
Job Specialization
The process by which a division of labor occurs as different workers specialize in different tasks over time.
Labor Intensive Agriculture
Type of agriculture that requires large levels of manual labor to be successful.
Location Theory
A logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of economic activities & the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated.
Long-lot Survey System
Divides land into narrow parcels that extend from rivers, roads, or canals.
Mediterranean Agriculture
An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean-Style climates of Western Europe, Cali, Australia, and portions of Chile, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes and avacados.
Mercantilism
An economic system to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all the nation's commercial interest.
Metes and Bonds
Legal description that begins at a well marked point and follows the boundaries around the tract, back to the place of the beginning.
Milkshed
The area surrounding a city in which milk is shipped to.
Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming
The most common form of commercial agriculture. Most of the crops are feed to livestock rather than to animals.
Neolithic Revolution
When settled communities had developed in many places by 8000 BC. The ability to settle was based almost entirely on successful cultivation of crops and domestication of animals.
Nomadism
A way of life, forced by a scarcity of resources, in which groups of people migrate to find sources of water and pastures.
Nucleated Settlement Pattern
Villages located close together with relatively small fields surrounding them.
Organic Agriculture
Farming and ranching that doesn't use herbicides, pesticides, growth hormones, and other similar synthetic inputs.
Pampas
Prairie of Argentina, Southern Brazil, and Uruguay are devoted to grazing cattle and sheep.
Pastoral Nomadism
A type of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
Patriarchal System
When men had the power in the family, economy, and government.
Plantation Farming
A large farm that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a MDC.
Post-Industrial Societies
Countries where most people are no longer employed in industry.
Primary Sector
This is the part of the economy that draws raw materials from the natural environment. This sector- agriculture, raising animals, fishing, forestry, and mining - is largest in low-income, pre-industrial nations.
Primogeniture
The right of inheritance that belongs exclusively to the eldest son.
Quaternary Sector
The quaternary sector is often seen as a subset of the tertiary sector.
Rectangular Survey System
A system for surveying and describing land by the reference to the principal meridians and base lines. It is also called the government survey system.
Second Agriculture Revolution
This began in the 1600s, which intensified agriculture by promoting higher yields per acre and per farmer.
Secondary Sector
The part of the economy that involves services rather than goods. It grows with industrialization and comes to dominate post-industrial societies. Examples of jobs in this sector include construction, trade, finance, etc.
Seed Agriculture
The production of plants through annual planting of seeds.
Seed Drill
A machine that helped plant seeds more effectively.
Shifting Cultivation (Swidden Agriculture)
When people shift activity from one field to another which each field being used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a long period of time.
Specialization
The growing of certain crops because the seem to be the most profitable.
Tertiary Sector
The portion of the economy that deals with transportation, utilities, and communications. It is sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment.
Third Agricultural Revolution
Currently in progress; the development of genetically modified orgnisms.
Truck Farming
When new plants are produced by direct cloning from existing plants, such as cutting stems and dividing roots.
Vegetative Planting
The reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants.
von Thunen's Model
This model is used to explain the importance of proximity to market in choice of crops on commercial farms. It must combine the value of high yield crop per hectare and the cost of transporting the yield per hectare.
Wattle
A type of framework consisting of stakes interwoven with branches to form a fence.
Wet (Lowland) Rice
Rice planted on dry land in a nursery and then moved into flooded field to promote growth.
Winter Wheat Area, Spring Wheat Area
The Spring Wheat Belt includes: The Dakotas, parts of Montana, Minnesota, and the provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba.
The Winter Wheat Belt includes: Parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, and Colorado.