Terms in this set (42)
Charismatic Leadership Theory
states that followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors
What is task structure?
Refers to the degree to which the task is made clear to the employee who has to perform it. It includes detailed job descriptions and procedures.
What is Fiedler's contingency leadership model?
A key factor in leadership success is the individual's leadership style.
Least preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire:
Task or relationship oriented
Assumes leadership style is fixed
What is leadership?
the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals
What type of behaviors are demonstrated in this theory?
What is distinctiveness?
suggests that when we observe an individual's behavior, we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused
Distinctiveness-whether the observed person acts the same way in different types of situations
Consensus-the degree to which other people, if in the same situation, would behave similarly to the person being observed
Consistency-describes whether the person being observed behaves the same way when faced with the same set of circumstances
What is non-sanctioned leadership?
the ability of an individual to influence others outside the formal structure of the organization
Difference in behaviors internally and externally caused
Internally caused - those that are believed to be under the personal control of the individual.
Externally caused - resulting from outside causes.
What are the factors that are present in a perceiver?
What is perception?
a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment
What affects a person's perception?
Factors in the Perceiver:
Factors in the situation:
Factors in the Target:
Myers Briggs Type Indicator
Extroverted or Introverted (E or I)
Sensing or Intuitive (S or N)
Thinking or Feeling (T or F)
Perceiving or Judging (P or J)
INTJs are visionaries.
ESTJs are organizers.
ENTPs are conceptualizers.
What does the hereditary approach state?
argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual's personality is the molecular structure of the genes, located in the chromosomes
What is personality?
a dynamic concept describing the growth and development of a person's whole psychological system.
the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others.
What is heredity?
refers to those factors that were determined at conception
What are the common means of measuring personality?
Person who defined personalities as a dynamic function?
"the dynamic organization within the individual of those psycho physical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment."
What are self-report surveys?
a type of survey, questionnaire, or poll in which respondents read the question and select a response by themselves without researcher interference. It is any method which involves asking a participant about their feelings, attitudes, or beliefs.
What are moods?
-cause is often general and unclear
-last longer than emotions
-More general (positive/ negative affects)
-Generally not indicated by distinct expressions
-Cognitive in nature
What are the different types of moods?
High negative affect-Tense, Nervous, Stressed, upset
Low Negative affect-Sad, depressed, bored, fatigued
High Positive affect- Alert, excited, elated, happy
Low positive affect-Content, Serene, Relaxed, Calm
Six essentially universal emotions
What are the characteristics of emotions?
-Caused by a specific event
-Very brief in duration
-Specific and numerous in nature
-usually accompanied by distinct facial expressions
How we describe an affect?
Defined as a broad range of feelings that people experience, can be experienced in the form of emotion and moods
How to measure satisfaction?
-The single global rating.
-The summation of job facets.
What is job satisfaction?
A positive feeling about the job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.
What is job involvement?
Degree of psychological identification with the job where perceived performance is important to self-worth.
What did Leon Festinger argue?
Proposed that cases of attitude following behavior illustrate the effects of cognitive dissonance.
Research has concluded that people seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behavior
Attitude predicts behavior
What is cognitive dissonance?
any incompatibility an individual might perceive between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes
Different components of an attitude
are evaluative statements - either favorable or unfavorable - about objects, people, or events.
Cognitive = evaluation
-my supervisor gave a promotion to a coworker who deserved it less than me, supervisor is unfair.
-I dislike my supervisor
-I'm now looking for other work;I've complained about my supervisor to anyone who would listen
What is verbal comprehension?
ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other
What is number aptitude?
ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic
What is perceptual speed?
ability to identify visual similarities and differences quickly and accurately
ability to use logic and assess the implications of an argument
Different forms of discrimination
Discriminatory policies or practices-older workers may be laid off cause they are highly paid
Sexual Harassment-unwanted sexual advances
Intimidation-threats/ bullying directed to specific minorities
Mockery and Insults- jokes/negative stereotypes
Exclusion- excluding people from certain job opportunities
Incivility- disrespectful treatment
What is surface level diversity?
Are those differences that are easily noticeable such as age, gender, ethnicity/race, tenure, religion, culture, language, disability, sexual orientation, and gender identity
What is deep level diversity?
are those differences that are not easily noticeable and measurable since they are communicated through verbal and non-verbal behaviors. Examples are personal differences in attitudes, values, beliefs and personality.
Networked organizations allow people to communicate and work together even though they may be thousands of miles apart
Differentiate between anthropology, psychology, and sociology
-is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.
- seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals
-studies people in relation to their social environment or culture
What are Mintzberg's 10 managerial roles
How a manager interacts with others:
Figurehead- symbolic head; required to perform a number of routine duties of a legal or social nature
Leader-responsible for the motivation and direction of employees
Liaison- maintains a network of outside contacts who provide favors and information
How a manager uses information to make decisions:
Entrepreneur- searches organization and its environment for opportunities and initiates projects to bring about change
Disturbance handler- responsible for corrective action when organization faces important, unexpected disturbances
Resource allocator- makes or approves significant organizational decisions
Negotiator- responsible for representing the organization at major negotiations
How a manager exchanges and processes information:
Monitor- receives a wide variety of information;serves as nerve center of internal and external information of the organization
Disseminator- transmits information received from outsiders or from other employees to members of the organization
Spokesperson- transmits information to outsiders on organization's plans, policies, actions, and results;serves as expert on organization's industry
Technical Skills (Katz's essential managerial skills)
The ability to apply expertise and perform a special task with proficiency.
Human Skills (Katz's essential managerial skills)
The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups.
Conceptual Skills (Katz's essential managerial skills)
The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations.
What are the four functions of management
the process of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the use of resources to accomplish performance goals
The process of setting objectives and determining what actions should be taken to accomplish them
The process of assigning tasks, allocating resources, and coordinating work activities
The process of arousing people's enthusiasm to work hard and direct their efforts to achieve goals
The process of measuring work performance and taking action to ensure desired results
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