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Ap government unit 3
Terms in this set (78)
The channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the government's policy agenda. (elections, political parties, interest groups, media)
Group of people organized to influence the government through the winning of elections and setting of the policy
(Democrats and Republicans)
Organized group of people with shared policy goals entering the policy process at several points to try to achieve these goals. Linkage institution.
Television, radio, newspapers, magazines and the internet and other means of popular communication. Linkage institution that informs the electorate while setting the policy agenda for policymakers.
Party in the Electorate
Voters who consider themselves allied or associated with a party. Register for that party membership and vote for its candidates.
Party in the Government (Governmental Party)
Office holders and candidates who run under a political party's banner.
Party as an Organization (Organizational Party)
Workers and volunteers who staff the party's formal organization
Event in which representatives are reapportioned based on new population data from the census ever 10 years. Congressional district lines are redrawn to reflect population changes.
Weakening hold of major political parties on electorate to a more neutral, independent ideological view of party identification. No one party is dominant.
Realigning "Critical" Elections
Elections in which traditional patterns of party loyalty are shifted. High turnout, durable long lasting electoral groups formed. Could end or begin a party era. (election of 1860 replaced whigs with republicans)
An individual's stance on a given issue, policy or person is more likely to be strictly defined by their identification with a particular political party or ideology.
Statement of a party's goals and policies for the next four years. Drafted prior to the convention by a committee chosen proportional to each member's strength.
Amicus Curiae Brief
Legal briefs submitted by a "friend of the court" for the purpose of raising additional points of view and presenting information not contained in the briefs of the formal parties. Attempt to influence a court's decision.
A small, organized, dissenting group within a larger group. A state of conflict within an organization. (Tea Party)
A group of individuals in a particular community come together to organize for social, political, environmental or economic change in order to enhance people's quality of life. Builds up from the bottom and includes a diverse group.
Theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization.
Theory of government and politics emphasizing tat politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies. Government is said to work because the multiple parties influence the government while none gain too much power.
Political Action Committee (PAC)
Funding vehicles formed by the campaign finance reforms in 1974. Corporate union or other organizations can create a PAC and register it with the FEC.
Economic Interest Groups
Third party concerned with economic issues. Are often regional. Protest economic conditions. (Populist Party)
Public Interest Groups
Organizations that seek a collective good. Fight for goals that will not only help its members but the entire population.
A provision inserted into a discretionary government spending appropriations bill that directs funds to a specific recipient while circumventing the merit-based or competitive funds allocation process
A communication by someone other than a citizen acting on his own behalf, directed to a governmental decision maker with the hope of influencing his decision.
Direct group involvement in the electoral process. Groups can help fund campaigns, provide testimony, and get members to work for candidates, and some form PAC's.
Free Rider Problem
Problem faced by unions and other groups when people do not joining because they can benefit from the group's activities without officially joining. The bigger the group, the more serious the free-rider problem.
Policy-making relationship among the congressional committees, bureaucracy, and interest groups.
An action brought in court to enforce a particular right. The act or process f bringing a lawsuit in and of itself. The process of taking political action.
Party members coming together to discuss and debate who would make the best candidate. Delegates selected at the precinct, county and district levels to select delegates for the upper levels, nominate the candidate. (Iowa)
Voters elect their candidate by directly voting on ballots. Increases people's voices while decreasing party leaders' influence. (New Hampshire)
Only the voters registered for a political party may vote in the primary to choose the nominee for the party. Voters must register ahead of the primary date.
Any person from any party can use any party's ballot. Voters choose which ballot to vote on the day they get to the polls. People can nominate a candidate from a party they are not a member of.
A second primary held in some states to determine which of the top two vote-getters in the first primary will be awarded the party nomination for an office. A second election to avoid winning by plurality.
An organized attempt by voters of one party to influence the primary results of the other party.
Presidential election held every 4 years in which a president is elected from the nominated candidates from each party. Most publicized.
Number of signatures required to get an initiative on a ballot is based on percentage of votes cast in an election in all but three states.
Voters may put proposed changes in the state constitution to a vote if sufficient signatures are obtained on petitions calling for such a referendum.
State-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or constitutional amendments.
Voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct vote before their term has ended. Initiated when enough voters sign a petition.
The population of a country that is of voting age and is eligible to vote.
More states want to move their primary dates sooner to gain more influence as a state. Early states have more media attention and may determine how the rest of the states go.
National party leaders who automatically get a delegate seat at the Democratic National Party Convention. Aren't pledged and may vote for whomever they want.
State that does not normally trend for one party or another. Is up for change every election. Is more value than solid states for campaigning because the state is more able to change than a solid state.
Electoral system created by the constitution in which the president is elected by electors in the state parties. Winner take all system for states, though normally representative, may be mistaken.
Citizens of the United States vote in the general election to select electors pledged for a party's candidate. Members of the electoral college. Are typically required to choose their party's candidate but sometimes don't.
Electoral system in which legislative seats are awarded to political parties in proportion to the number of votes won in an election.
Electoral system in which legislative seats are awarded only to the candidates who come in first in their constituencies. Winner of the state's popular vote receives all its electoral votes.
Electoral district that returns one officeholder to a body with multiple members such as a legislature. Winner takes all in this situation as the winning official takes all of the seats in that district.
Held every 4 years, 2 years after the presidential elections. Congressional and other officials are under election, significantly less turnout because of less media attention.
A collection of money or resources held by a party or official in case of a challenge. Funded by donors in advance of the campaign. Much stronger in incumbent candidates.
Down-ballot effect, tendency for a popular political party leader to attract votes for other candidates of the same party in an election-they ride on the coattails of the popular official.
Current office holder running for the same office. Has a very strong advantage. (90% reelection in house, 75% in senate) Incumbent has advantage due to more money, visibility, gerrymandering.
Allows members of congress to transmit mail matter under their signature without postage. Congress reimburses the USPS for the mail.
Funding by a government or organization that is repetitive rather than a one time grant. Money given directly to a candidate to help with their campaign.
Political campaign communication that expressly advocates for the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate that is not made with the cooperation of that candidate.
Issue Advocacy Ads
Political advertising focused on broad political issues rather than specific candidates. Doesn't try to persuade people to vote a certain way but highlight issues.
Political contributions earmarked for party-building expenses at the grassroots level or for generic party advertising. Not subject to contribution limits because they are not addressed to a specific candidate.
A PAC that may raise unlimited sums of money from corporations unions and individuals but is not permitted to contribute or coordinate directly with parties or candidates.
Federal Elections Commission (FEC)
Six-member bipartisan agency formed by the FECA administering the campaign finance laws and enforcing compliance with their requirements.
Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA)
Passed to limit influence of money in federal campaigns. Created the FEC to monitor and enforce campaign finance laws. Partial public funding for presidential campaigns. Full public financing for major party candidates. Limited direct contributions to candidates.
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (McCain-Feingold Act)
Banned soft money, money raised outside limits and prohibitions of campaign finance laws, in federal campaigns. Banned corporate electioneering spending 60 days prior to the general election. Candidates must take ownership of their ads.
527 Political Committees
Created to influence political process. Not subject to contribution restrictions because they don't expressly advocate for the election or defeat of a candidate or party.
501 (c)(3) Political Committees
Non-profit issue groups. Intended to promote social welfare. Not required to disclose donors.
Buckley v. Valeo
Stated money is a form of speech.
Citizens United v. FEC
Enabled Super PAC's and individuals to spend unlimited amounts on election, don't coordinate with a candidate and campaign.
Act to prevent pernicious political activities. Main provision prohibits employees in the executive branch from engaging in certain political activities.
Bundling is a form of political fundraising in which one person or a small group of people convince their friends, coworkers and other like-minded donors to write checks to a candidate for public office.
A filmed episode showing a candidate doing something newsworthy. Gives candidate public attention.
Short television advertisements used to promote a candidate for government office.
Yellow journalism, or the yellow press, is a type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers. Techniques may include exaggerations of news events, scandal-mongering or sensationalism.
the action of searching out and publicizing scandalous information about famous people in an underhanded way.
Political journalism of elections that resembles coverage of horse races because of the focus on polling data, public perception instead of candidate policy, and almost exclusive reporting on candidate differences rather than similarities.
Role of media in influencing what subjects become national policy issues or storylines by controlling what's reported. Media is able to focus people's attention on specific issues. Helps set policy agenda and shape public opinion.
Track who's ahead in elections. Criticized for reporting contest, sound bites, crowd sizes at candidate rallies rather than the policy issues and candidate characteristics. Also can cause the bandwagon effect.
Closely scrutinize backgrounds and activities of candidates in order to expose corruption or scandals.
Short video clips of approximately 15 seconds, typically all that is shown from a politician's speech or activities on the news. Criticized for only showing a fraction of an official's speech.
Ability of media to influence the salience of topics on the public agenda. If a news item id covered frequently and prominently, the audience will regard the issue as more important.
Conspicuous position that provides an opportunity to speak out and be listened to. T. Roosevelt called the White House a bloody pulpit because everyone would pay attention to the president.
Censorship imposed, usually by a government, on expression before the expression actually takes place.
Chosen by state parties as electors to select delegates at higher levels of government and the candidate the party will nominate.
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