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simplest of organic molecules
chain of carbons connected by single bonds w/ H atoms attached
ending in "-ane"
"n" = normal = sub is straight-chain alkane attached to backbone at one end of its chain
assume molecule is normal unless stated otherwise
multiple => di, tri, tetra (ignored in alpha)
name is alpha order (also iso, neo, cyclo)
separate numbers from number w/ commas; separate numbers from words w/ hyphens
C(n)H(2n) (like alkene)
degree of unsaturation - loss of hydrogens when C makes an additional bond (ex: two fewer -> 1)
ring numbered starting w/ carbon w/ most substituents
goal is give lowest series of numbers possible
more complicated molecules
when counting long chain, MUST have highest-priority functional group included, receiving lowest number and suffix of group
higher functional group compound just need to be more oxidized
end in "ene"
if multiple DBs, chains contains greatest # of them
config isomer (cis/trans, E,Z)
propylenes attached to backbone at C-3 position
only one carbon DB to rest of molecule
# indicate position
common name: acetylene
two degree of unsat since has 2 pi bonds
when both DB and TB -< DB given lowest #
ending w/ -ol
lowest number possible
> DB and TB
also named as alkyl alcohol (ethanol or ethyl alcohol)
common name 2 propanol
OH on the same carbon
spon. lose water (dehydrate) => carbonyl compounds
specified by alkoxy => presence of one (oxy) and corresponding smaller alkyl group (ex: oxy and alk-)
both connected to small O
receives # 1
3 bonds to oxygen
most oxidized functional group (more than this is CO2, since 4 bonds to oxygen)
N containing compounds, longest chain attached to N atom used as backbone
suffix is -amine
prefix is amino-
add. group attached to N => N-
P = halocarbonyl
S= -oyl halide
acyl halide P and S
P = amido
amide P and S
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