Create an account
least similar of all isomers
can have diff. functional groups and bonding patterns
same chem formula, same atomic connectivity, but diff in how atoms are arranged in space
diff in position of sub attached to DB or cycloalkane
only one sub => cis or trans
differ in many chem and phys. prop
highest priority sub attached to each DB carbon => Z or E
object not superimposable on mirror image
carbons known as chiral centers
rotating object doesn't change its chirality
nonsuperimposable mirror images of chiral objects
identical phys. and chem prop.
capable of rotating plane of polarized light (this does pass polarizer at perpendicular angle) => opp and same amount for two compounds
dex (+) and lev (-)
direction of rotation obtained exp => not related to absolute config.
are config. isomers
relative config of chiral molecule
config. in relation to another chiral molecule
often through chem. interconversion
determine whether enan, dias. or same molecule
absolute config of chiral molecule
describes the exact spatial arrangement of atoms or groups, indie of other molecules
rotation of plane polarized light
amount depends on number molecules which also depends on conc. and length of tube that light passes
non mirror image config. isomers
cis and trans
can have two or more stereogenic centers
required to have multiple chiral centers
differ in chem and phys
same molecules, only at diff points in their natural rotation
diff. position of atoms around one or more of their single bonds
180 => min. steric repulsion between atoms' electron clouds => most stable conformation
straight chain conformation
every molecules wants lowest energy state
higher => less time
barriers overcome at room temp
if low temp => interconversion dramatically slow
may not rotate at all (0 K)
nonbonded strain (van der Waals repulsion), steric
nonadjacent atoms or groups compete for same space
dominant source of energy in flagpole interactions of boat conformation
to alleviate => adopt nonpolar conforms
cyclobutane => V shape
cyclopentane => enevelope
cyclohexane => chair, boat, and twist/skew-boat
most stable = chair
all 3 types of strains
axial and equatorial alternate
boat conformation is intermediate
intermediate of cyclohexane (unsub)
all atoms eclipsed => avoid strain => slightly more stable stable twist/skew boat conformation
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
Having trouble? Click here for help.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again
Reload the page to try again!Reload
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.
For more help, see our troubleshooting page.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.
Star this term
You can study starred terms together