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composed of two lobes located symm. about the nucleus and contains a node in the nucleus
has 3 diff. orientations
composed of 4 symm. lobes and contains 2 nodes.
4 of them are clover shaped and fifth looks like a donut wrapped around center of a p orbital.
when molecular orbital is formed head to head or tail to tail of two s's, two p's, or one s and p => this results
two unhybridized p orbitals line up in parallel (side by side) fashion, their electron clouds overlap, and a bonding molecular orbitals is formed
weaker the sigma, and it's possible to break only one of bonds in DB, leaving a single bond intact (geo isomers converted)
carbon electron config
needs 4 electrons to complete its octet
in methane, sigma bonds are equivalent
all four of orbitals point toward vertices of a tetrahedron to min repulsion => prefer tetrahedral geo
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