two types of chemical bonds
ionic and covalent
ochem concerned w/ this type of bonding
covalent (polar and nonpolar) => effect phys. properties
spherical and symm., centered on the nucleus
composed of two lobes located symm. about the nucleus and contains a node in the nucleus
has 3 diff. orientations
an area where the prob. of finding an electron is zero
composed of 4 symm. lobes and contains 2 nodes.
4 of them are clover shaped and fifth looks like a donut wrapped around center of a p orbital.
two atomic orbitals combine and form this
obtained math. by adding or subtracting the wave functions of atomic orbitals
sign of wave functions same => this lower energy (more stable) forms
if signs are different, higher energy (less stable)
when molecular orbital is formed head to head or tail to tail of two s's, two p's, or one s and p => this results
atoms more close together; stronger than longer bonds
two unhybridized p orbitals line up in parallel (side by side) fashion, their electron clouds overlap, and a bonding molecular orbitals is formed
one pi bond on top of an existing single bond
a sigma bond and two pi bonds
double and triple bonds
hinder rotation => lock atoms into position
can't exist indie of sigma
weaker the sigma, and it's possible to break only one of bonds in DB, leaving a single bond intact (geo isomers converted)
although weak than sigma in isolation, strength is additive
carbon electron config
needs 4 electrons to complete its octet
in methane, sigma bonds are equivalent
combine 3 p and 1 s => 4sp3
all four of orbitals point toward vertices of a tetrahedron to min repulsion => prefer tetrahedral geo
3rd p orbital left unhybridized, orbital that partcipates in the pi bond
three of orbitals are 120 degrees apart
two p orbitals to form pi bonds
third p orbital combines w/ s orbital to from two sp hybrid
orbitals are 180 degrees apart
share same sign and energetically favorable
making all bonds to central atom equivalent to each other
e density is conc. above and below the bonding axis
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