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two types of chemical bonds

ionic and covalent

ochem concerned w/ this type of bonding

covalent (polar and nonpolar) => effect phys. properties

s orbital

spherical and symm., centered on the nucleus

p orbital

composed of two lobes located symm. about the nucleus and contains a node in the nucleus

has 3 diff. orientations


an area where the prob. of finding an electron is zero

d orbitals

composed of 4 symm. lobes and contains 2 nodes.

4 of them are clover shaped and fifth looks like a donut wrapped around center of a p orbital.

molecular orbitals

two atomic orbitals combine and form this

molecular orbitals

obtained math. by adding or subtracting the wave functions of atomic orbitals

bonding orbitals

sign of wave functions same => this lower energy (more stable) forms

antibonding orbitals

if signs are different, higher energy (less stable)

sigma bond

when molecular orbital is formed head to head or tail to tail of two s's, two p's, or one s and p => this results

shorter bonds

atoms more close together; stronger than longer bonds

pi bond

two unhybridized p orbitals line up in parallel (side by side) fashion, their electron clouds overlap, and a bonding molecular orbitals is formed

double bond

one pi bond on top of an existing single bond

triple bond

a sigma bond and two pi bonds

double and triple bonds

hinder rotation => lock atoms into position

pi bonds

can't exist indie of sigma

pi bonds

weaker the sigma, and it's possible to break only one of bonds in DB, leaving a single bond intact (geo isomers converted)

pi bonds

although weak than sigma in isolation, strength is additive

carbon electron config


needs 4 electrons to complete its octet

in methane, sigma bonds are equivalent

sp3 hybrid

combine 3 p and 1 s => 4sp3

sp3 hybrid

all four of orbitals point toward vertices of a tetrahedron to min repulsion => prefer tetrahedral geo

sp3 hybrid

25% s, 75% p


one s, two p's


3rd p orbital left unhybridized, orbital that partcipates in the pi bond



three of orbitals are 120 degrees apart


triple bond


two p orbitals to form pi bonds

third p orbital combines w/ s orbital to from two sp hybrid


orbitals are 180 degrees apart

bonding orbitals

share same sign and energetically favorable


making all bonds to central atom equivalent to each other

pi bond

e density is conc. above and below the bonding axis

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