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D or L config of other monosacs based on relationship to this
molecule's highest numbered chiral center (farthest from carbonyl) as D+ => then D sugar
nonidentical sugars w/in same family, as long as both are ketoses/aldoses, and have same number of carbons
ring prop of monosacs
OH = Nu
carbonyl = Electrophile
=> intramolecular rxn => cyclc hemiacetal/hemiketal (from aldoses/ketoses) and O becomes part of ring
ring prop of monosacs
due to ring strain, only cyclic molecule that are stable in solution are pyranose and furanose
six membered rings formed from
six carbon aldoses or seven carbon ketoses, since O on highest-numbered chiral group acts as Nu
5 membered rings formed from
5 carbon aldoses or 6 carbon ketoses, since O on highest-numbered chiral group acts as Nu
hemiacetal rings to water => spon open and reform => since C1 and C2 can rotate freely => both anomer α and β at eq. conc.
oxidation of monosacs (monosac)
switching between anomeric configs => hemiacetal rings spend short time in openc hain aldehyde form => can be oxidized to carb acids (these oxidized aldoses)
Tollen's reagent and Benedict's reagent
detect presence of reducing sugars, in oxidation of monosacs (monosac)
positive involves reduction of Ag+ to form metallic silver in oxidation of monosacs (monosac)
a red ppt of Cu2O indicate presence of reducing sugar in oxidation of monosacs (monosac)
also reducing sugars and use both reagents, however, since ketones can't be oxidized to carb acids -> isomerize to aldoses via keto-enol shifts => react w/ reagents => carb acids
dilute nitric acid (powerful oxidizing agent)
oxidizes both aldehyde and primary alcohols (c-6) to carb acisd
anomeric OH group transformed into alkoxy group => mix of α and β acetal (h2o as LG)
person missing enzyme lactase, which breaks disac lactose into glu and galactose molecules
plants store energy as these molecules by linking glucose molecules primariy in 1,4'α glycosidic bond, although occasional 1,6'α glycosidic bonds form branches off chain
similar to starch, except more 1,6'α glycosidic bond (approx 1 for every 12 gluc molecules) => highly branced compound (dendrimer)
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