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AP Ch 14 Brain

the major region of the brain used for memory, intelligence and complex motor function


region of the brain that adjusts voluntary and involuntary motor activity based on sensory info and memories of mvmt


brain stem consists of the ___, ___ and ___ ___

midbrain, pons and meulla oblongata

the prosencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephelon are the three ___ ___ ___

primary brain vesicles

the telencephalon ultimately forms the ___ of the adult brain


the midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata make up the ___ ___

brain stem

brain structure that controls conscious thought, memory processing and complex motor movements


the thalamus and the hypothalamus make up the


brain structure that integrates sensory input with motor output subconsciously

diencephelon (thalamus and hypothalamus)

thalamus function

relay sensory info to the basal nuclei and cerebral cortex. acts as a filter sending only necessary sensory input

functions of hypothalamus

1-subconscious skeletal muscle control (sex, rage, pain response)
2-control autonomic centers in medulla oblongata (HR, BP, RR etc)
3-nervous/endocrine control through regulatory hormones directed at pituitary gland
4-secretes two hormones (ADH and OXT)
5-emotions and behavioral drives (hunger, thirst)
6-coordinates voluntary and autonomic functions (fight or flight)
7-body temp regulation
8-circadian rhythms control

two hormones secreted by hypothalamus

ADH and OXT (antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin)

ADH is also known as


brain structure that processes visual and auditory sensations, somatic reflexes and maintains consciousness

midbrain (superior part of brain stem)

brains structure that modifies respiratory activity of medulla oblongata, relays info to cerebellum and sense/motor of cranial nerves for face and internal ear

pons (middle of brain stem)

relays sensory info to thalamus, contains auronomic centers for regulation of visceral function (HR, BP, RR, digestive, etc)

medulla oblongata (inferior brain stem)

adjusts postural muscles, fine-tunes movements conscious and subconscious based on proprioceptive info


controls conscious thought, intellect, memory processing, complex skeletal muscle movement


neural cortex

layer of gray matter covering the cerebrum and cerebellum

portion of the neural cortex (gray matter) that covers the cerebrum

cerebral cortex

neural cortex (gray matter) that covers cerebellum

cerebellar cortex

spinal cord connects to brain at the

medulla oblongata



ventricles of brain

two lateral vetricles, septum pellucidum, third ventricle, fourth ventricle

connects the lateral ventricles with the third ventricle

interventricular foramen

layers of cranial meninges (from inside out)

pia mater, arachnoid mater, dura mater

functions of cranial meninges

pad and stabilize position of brain

functions of CSF

2-support (floats)
3-transport nutrients, waste and chemical messengers

CSF is produced at the ___ ___

choroid plexus

isolates neural tissue from general circulation

blood-brain barrier

locations that the blood-brain barrier is incomplete (mostly for hormone secretion/interaction)

hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal gland and choroid plexus

cardiovascular and respiratory reflex centers are located in the ___ ___

medulla oblongata

limbic system

motivational system, responsible for emotional states and behavioral drives and learning

hippocampus (limbic)

part of the limbic system important in learning, storing memories

longitudinal fissure

separates the two cerebral hemispheres

each cerebral hemisphere reveives info and sends info to the ___ side of the body


association fibers

type of axon of cerebral white matter, interconnect areas of cerebral cortex within a single hemisphere

commissural fibers

type of axon of cerebral white matter, allow communication between hemispheres

projection fibers

link cerebral cortex to pons, brain stem and spinal cord

basal nuclei

masses of gray matter within each hemisphere of cerebrum

functions of basal nuclei (in cerebrum)

subconscious control of skeletal muscle tone and coordination of learned mvmt patterns

how learned movement patterns work in the brain

cerebral cortex issues command to begin (ie start waking). basal nuclei subconsciously controls mvmts (ie arm and leg motion). cerebral cortex gives command to stop (ie stop walking)

substantia nigra of midbrain releases ___ whcih inhibits activity of basal nuclei


Parkinson's disease

substantia nigra is damaged or neurons secrete less dopamine causing overactive basal nuclei to increase muscle tone and muscles unable to relax. every mvmt becomes voluntary and mentally trying

primary motor cortex

located in cerebrum, directs voluntary movement by controlling somatic motor neurons in the brain stem and spina cord

primary sensory cortex

located in cerebrum, receive somatic sensory info from receptors for touch, pressure, pain, vibration, taste and temp

visual cortex

in occipital lobe of cerebrum, receives visual info

auditory cortex

in temporal lobe of cerebrum, receives info about hearing

olfactory cortex

in temporal lobe of cerebrum, receives info about smell

gustatory cortex

receives info about taste

association areas

regions of the cerebral cortex that monitor, interpret and process incoming data

visual association area

monitors visual cortex and interprets results (visual cortex allows you to see a string of letters, association area processes them allowing you to read)

auditory association area

monitors auditory cortex and processes the info

premotor cortex (somatic motor association area)

responsible for the coordination of learned movements

General interpretive area (Wernicke's area)

receives info from ALL sensory association areas. essential for personality, integrates info into complex visual and auditory memories

prefrontal cortex

in frontal lobe, coordinates info from entire cortex, performs abstract thoughts

hemishperic lateralization

each hemisphere of the cerebrum is responsible for its own set of functions independant from the other hemisphere

functions of Lt hemisphere of cerebrum

Logic, analytics, math, speech, reading, writing, decision-making

functions of Rt hemsiphere

recognizes faces, emotions, 3D relationships

cranial nerves are numbered?

based on attachement point on brain moving anterior to posterior (CN I is most anterior and CN XII is the most posterior)

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