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AP Ch 14(A) Brain

AP Ch 14 Brain
the major region of the brain used for memory, intelligence and complex motor function
region of the brain that adjusts voluntary and involuntary motor activity based on sensory info and memories of mvmt
brain stem consists of the ___, ___ and ___ ___
midbrain, pons and meulla oblongata
the prosencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephelon are the three ___ ___ ___
primary brain vesicles
the telencephalon ultimately forms the ___ of the adult brain
the midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata make up the ___ ___
brain stem
brain structure that controls conscious thought, memory processing and complex motor movements
the thalamus and the hypothalamus make up the
brain structure that integrates sensory input with motor output subconsciously
diencephelon (thalamus and hypothalamus)
thalamus function
relay sensory info to the basal nuclei and cerebral cortex. acts as a filter sending only necessary sensory input
functions of hypothalamus
1-subconscious skeletal muscle control (sex, rage, pain response)
2-control autonomic centers in medulla oblongata (HR, BP, RR etc)
3-nervous/endocrine control through regulatory hormones directed at pituitary gland
4-secretes two hormones (ADH and OXT)
5-emotions and behavioral drives (hunger, thirst)
6-coordinates voluntary and autonomic functions (fight or flight)
7-body temp regulation
8-circadian rhythms control
two hormones secreted by hypothalamus
ADH and OXT (antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin)
ADH is also known as
brain structure that processes visual and auditory sensations, somatic reflexes and maintains consciousness
midbrain (superior part of brain stem)
brains structure that modifies respiratory activity of medulla oblongata, relays info to cerebellum and sense/motor of cranial nerves for face and internal ear
pons (middle of brain stem)
relays sensory info to thalamus, contains auronomic centers for regulation of visceral function (HR, BP, RR, digestive, etc)
medulla oblongata (inferior brain stem)
adjusts postural muscles, fine-tunes movements conscious and subconscious based on proprioceptive info
controls conscious thought, intellect, memory processing, complex skeletal muscle movement
neural cortex
layer of gray matter covering the cerebrum and cerebellum
portion of the neural cortex (gray matter) that covers the cerebrum
cerebral cortex
neural cortex (gray matter) that covers cerebellum
cerebellar cortex
spinal cord connects to brain at the
medulla oblongata
ventricles of brain
two lateral vetricles, septum pellucidum, third ventricle, fourth ventricle
connects the lateral ventricles with the third ventricle
interventricular foramen
layers of cranial meninges (from inside out)
pia mater, arachnoid mater, dura mater
functions of cranial meninges
pad and stabilize position of brain
functions of CSF
2-support (floats)
3-transport nutrients, waste and chemical messengers
CSF is produced at the ___ ___
choroid plexus
isolates neural tissue from general circulation
blood-brain barrier
locations that the blood-brain barrier is incomplete (mostly for hormone secretion/interaction)
hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal gland and choroid plexus
cardiovascular and respiratory reflex centers are located in the ___ ___
medulla oblongata
limbic system
motivational system, responsible for emotional states and behavioral drives and learning
hippocampus (limbic)
part of the limbic system important in learning, storing memories
longitudinal fissure
separates the two cerebral hemispheres
each cerebral hemisphere reveives info and sends info to the ___ side of the body
association fibers
type of axon of cerebral white matter, interconnect areas of cerebral cortex within a single hemisphere
commissural fibers
type of axon of cerebral white matter, allow communication between hemispheres
projection fibers
link cerebral cortex to pons, brain stem and spinal cord
basal nuclei
masses of gray matter within each hemisphere of cerebrum
functions of basal nuclei (in cerebrum)
subconscious control of skeletal muscle tone and coordination of learned mvmt patterns
how learned movement patterns work in the brain
cerebral cortex issues command to begin (ie start waking). basal nuclei subconsciously controls mvmts (ie arm and leg motion). cerebral cortex gives command to stop (ie stop walking)
substantia nigra of midbrain releases ___ whcih inhibits activity of basal nuclei
Parkinson's disease
substantia nigra is damaged or neurons secrete less dopamine causing overactive basal nuclei to increase muscle tone and muscles unable to relax. every mvmt becomes voluntary and mentally trying
primary motor cortex
located in cerebrum, directs voluntary movement by controlling somatic motor neurons in the brain stem and spina cord
primary sensory cortex
located in cerebrum, receive somatic sensory info from receptors for touch, pressure, pain, vibration, taste and temp
visual cortex
in occipital lobe of cerebrum, receives visual info
auditory cortex
in temporal lobe of cerebrum, receives info about hearing
olfactory cortex
in temporal lobe of cerebrum, receives info about smell
gustatory cortex
receives info about taste
association areas
regions of the cerebral cortex that monitor, interpret and process incoming data
visual association area
monitors visual cortex and interprets results (visual cortex allows you to see a string of letters, association area processes them allowing you to read)
auditory association area
monitors auditory cortex and processes the info
premotor cortex (somatic motor association area)
responsible for the coordination of learned movements
General interpretive area (Wernicke's area)
receives info from ALL sensory association areas. essential for personality, integrates info into complex visual and auditory memories
prefrontal cortex
in frontal lobe, coordinates info from entire cortex, performs abstract thoughts
hemishperic lateralization
each hemisphere of the cerebrum is responsible for its own set of functions independant from the other hemisphere
functions of Lt hemisphere of cerebrum
Logic, analytics, math, speech, reading, writing, decision-making
functions of Rt hemsiphere
recognizes faces, emotions, 3D relationships
cranial nerves are numbered?
based on attachement point on brain moving anterior to posterior (CN I is most anterior and CN XII is the most posterior)