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AP Gov Chapter 2
Terms in this set (50)
Hamilton emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the outspoken leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers. Later, as secretary of treasury under Washington, Alexander Hamilton spearheaded the government's Federalist initiatives, most notably through the creation of the Bank of the United States.
a change to the constitution
opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independant states
The authority of a court to review decisions made by lower courts
Distribution of representatives among the states based on the population of each state
Articles of Confederation
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
A historian who argued that the Founders were largely motivated by the economic advantage of their class in writing the Constitution
Bill of Attainder
a law that punishes a person accused of a crime without a trial or a fair hearing in court
Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
Checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
a temporary alliance of several groups who come together to form a working majority and so to control a government
The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
Government by the people, exercised either directly or through elected representative
group of persons chosen in each state and the district of columbia every four years who make a formal selection of the president and vice president
Powers specifically given to Congress in the Constitution; including the power to collect taxes, coin money, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, and declare war.
Ex post facto law
a law that makes an act criminal although the act was legal when it was committed
A term the founders used to refer to political parties and special interests or interest groups.
a form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states
Federalist No. 10
An essay composed by James Madison which argues that liberty is safest in a large republic because many interests (factions) exist. Such diversity makes tyranny by the majority more difficult since ruling coalitions will always be unstable.
Federalist No. 51
written by James Madison; separation of powers; "you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself.
a series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay (using the name "publius") published in NY newspapers and used to convince readers to adopt the new constitution. Reassured people that the states would not be overpowered by the National government.
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
Fugitive slave clause
Article IV, Section 2, Clause 3 of the Constitution, which stated that slaves who escaped must be returned to their owners. It was later abolished in the Thirteenth Amendment
Great Compromise/Connecticut Plan
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
Line item veto
Presidential power to strike, or remove, specific items from a spending bill without vetoing the entire package; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
Also known as a mixed constitution, is a form of government that integrated facets of government by democracy, oligarchy, and monarchy. It means there are some issues (often defined in a constitution) where the state is governed by the majority of the people, in some other issues the state is governed by few, in some other issues by a single person (also often defined in a constitution). The idea is commonly treated as an antecedent of separation of powers.
state ruled over by a single person, as a king or queen
Rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on governments, which include life, liberty, and property. The concept of natural rights was central to English philosopher John Locke's theories about government and was widely accepted among America's Founders.
Necessary and Proper Clause
Constitutional clause that gives congress the power to make all laws "necessary and proper" for executing its powers
New Jersey Plan
Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states
Form of government in which a few people have the power
The jurisdiction of courts that hear a case first, usually in a trial. These are the courts that determine the facts about a case.
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
an electoral system used throughout most of Europe that awards legislative seats to political parties in proportion to the number of votes won in an election.
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Separation of powers
The division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
agreement among all the people in a society to give up part of their freedom to a government in exchange for protection of natural rights. John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau were two European political philosophers who wrote about this concept.
State of Nature
The basis of natural rights philosophy; a state of nature is the condition of people living in a situation without man-made government, rules, or laws.
constitutional declaration (Article VI) that the Constitution and laws made under its provisions are the greatest law of the land
wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only a powerful government could keep an orderly society
the crime of betraying one's country, the only crime outlined in the Constitution
These rights are fundamental or natural rights guaranteed to people naturally instead of by the law. They include life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
the power or right to prohibit or reject a proposed or intended act (especially the power of a chief executive to reject a bill passed by the legislature)
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
Writ of habeas corpus
a court order that requires police to bring a prisoner to court to explain why they are holding the person
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Articles of the Constitution
AP gov terms reapportionment - writ of certiorari
Ap gov required documents
Powers Granted Vs. Powers Denied in Constitution
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