Upgrade to remove ads
Coral Reefs Exam 1
Terms in this set (60)
chemical composition and internal structure of earth
Plate tectonics processes occur because of
What drives plate motion
plate tectonic settings
First-order factor controlling reef development is
-Passive continental margins
-Rifted continental margins
-Tectonically active areas
Major tectonic settings which ancient carbonate platforms have developed on:
Earth's cool, strong outer layer
Earth's hotter, weaker inner layer
Thin and less buoyant so it floats high up on the mantle
Thin and less buoyant and dense so its surface is lower
Divergent, transform, and convergent boundaries
Types of plate boundaries
where two plates move apart, resulting in upwelling from the mantle and creating a new sea floor (new plates created)
where two plates slide past each other without the production or distraction of the lithosphere
where two plates come together resulting in subduction or collision (active volcano regions) ; plates destroyed
Continent-continent, ocean-continent, ocean-ocean
Convergent boundary types
two continental plates converging (Himalayas)
ocean plate and continental plate converging (Andes)
two ocean plates converging (Caribbean)
Cause extinction due to changes in climate/landscape or lead to adaption or evolution of new species
How does continental breakup affect land organisms
allows them more space and favorable conditions to survive and thrive
How does continental breakup affect marine organisms
igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary
Three major rock types
when hot, molten rock crystallizes and solidifies → melt originates near active plate boundaries and rises to surface
How do igneous form
Types of igneous
started out as a different type of rock, but has substantially changed form. Form when rocks are subjected to high heat, high pressure, hot and mineral rich fluids or a combination of these factors. They form where tectonic plates meet or deep within the Earth.
How do metamorphic rocks form
formed from pre-existing rocks or from pieces of once living organisms and are formed from deposits that accumulate on the Earth's surface
how do sedimentary rocks form
clastic, biologic, chemical
Types of sedimentary
made up of pieces of pre-existing rocks. Pieces of rock are buried deeply, compacted and cemented, forming the rock.
form when large number of living things that have died pile up and are compressed and cemented to form the rock.
formed by chemical precipitation; water traveling through rocks dissolves some of the material. These minerals are eventually re-deposited.
Broad, shallow area where reefs can form on passive continental margins.
Sedimentary environments and coral: continental shelf
Allows us to see how long the evolution of extinct coral reef species and modern corals took
Orders Tabulata and Rugosa
Tells us how many thousands, millions or billions of years ago something happened. Exact measure of time.
Can be used to differentiate events within a certain period or specific era. Eras are relative.
-Cenozoic - Age of Mammals (Today); Young Life
-Mesoszoic - Dinosaurs originated in this Era became extinct at the end of it; Origin of Mammals; Middle Life
-Paleozoic - Old life
-Precambrian - Before life
Geologic time scale
warm water (75 F), sea levels at 20 meters deep for photosynthesis, tectonic quiescene (presene of shallow carbonate platforms), ocean circulation (clear water, low nutrients, larvae from coral distributed via ocean currents), biodiversity
Criteria for reef stability
reef organisms and size are changing; se level, temps, and biodiversity changing
Changes in geologic settings have changed reef stability over time
decimation or death of all individuals in a species. Every species that evolves eventually becomes extinct
an extinction that wipes out a significant amount of Earth's organisms.
(Five mass extinctions in Earth's history)
zone nearest to land, extends from shore to reef crest
Zonations: back reef/reef flat
High wave energy. Shallowest area, exposed at low tide. Some corals can survive.
zonations: reef crest
Moderate to high wave energy and sunlight depending on depth. Massive corals live here.
farthest from the shore and downward slope to great depths. Most corals live here and diversity is dependent on depth and available light.
CaCO3 structure with living animals growing on it; diverse ecosystems with many animals
Reef compositions: what is a coral reef
-Biomineralization to form skeletons
-Formation of sediment grains by skeletal destruction and disintegration
-Baffling, binding or trapping of loose sediments by organisms
-Precipitation of carbonate
fringing, barrier, atoll, patch
Types of reefs
directly attached to a shore or borders it closely. Often with a channel or lagoon.
Reef separated from land by a deep channel or lagoon.
Circular or continuous barrier reef around a lagoon without an island in the middle (sunken island)
Isolated, small reef within a lagoon, surrounded by seagrass or sand.
Erosion of reef substrates by living organisms
Unique animal, or polyp, that often live in colonies.
Symbiotic relationship with photosynthetic algae
Reproduce sexually or asexually
Reefs are predominately found in sedimentary rocks, dolostone and limestone, which contain calcium carbonate.
Where are reefs found
Shape is related to
-Has sponges, crabs, lobsters, mollusks, etc.
-Do not have zoozanthellae
-No symbiotic algae
-Dependent on organic matter and zooplankton to get food/energy
Live in temperatures of 38-55F
-Depths of 200-400 meters
-Found in every ocean, most common in the Atlantic
Cold water reef
Deep sea oil and gas development
Destructive fishery practices
Threats to cold water reefs
73-82F sea temperatures
Require symbiotic light dependent algae
Restricted to low latitudes and are most common in the indo-pacific and caribbean regions.
Warm water reefs
Ecological Requirements (salinity, temperature, nutrient levels, depth and light
Dispersal capabilities (pattern of ocean currents)
Past distribution affects
Sources of coral reef patterns
Zooxanthellae, a photosynthetic algae, live within the tissues of coral reefs. The coral provides zooxanthellae with a place to live as well as the nutrients needed for photosynthesis. The zooxanthellae in return provide the coral with oxygen and helps with waste removal. It also supplies it with glucose, amino acids, carbohydrates, and other products from photosynthesis. The infusion of energy between them is essential for the survival of both, specifically the zooxanthellae helps the coral grow and deposit skeleton to avoid the effects of erosion.
Zooxanthellae and Coral Symbiosis
the rapid evolution of organisms to quickly fill open niche spaces. They occur under the circumstance that certain organisms develop new body forms that give them an advantage, for example.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Science Semester Exam
AP Environmental Science The Earth
Geology 1003 Test 1 - Ma LSU
STF Mrs. Mott - Mid-Term Vocabulary 2017
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Dynamics I Final
HISP 250 Final Vocab (Chapters 10 and 11)
HISP 250 Test 2
Intro to Atmospheric Science Exam 1