Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry.
Western India, Northern China, and Ethiopia. Southwest Asia was also heavily involved in the diffusion of agriculture.
Genetic modification of an animal such that it is rendered more amenable to human control.
Cultivation of aquatic organisms for food.
Modifying living organisms to improve plant and animal production.
A farm or a group of farms organized as a unit and managed and worked cooperatively by a group of laborers under state supervision, especially in a Communist country.
Intensive commercial agriculture
Smaller areas producing greater yield.
Extensive commercial agriculture
Larger areas of agriculture used for ranching or farming.
The practice of growing different crops in succession on the same land chiefly to preserve the productive capacity of the soil.
When agencies such as the World Bank make a deal with third world countries that they will cancel their debt if the country will set aside a certain amount of their natural resources.
Process by which fertile land becomes arid and unproductive.
Harvesting twice a year from the same land.
Primary economic activity
Extraction phase; removing from the Earth.
Secondary economic activity
Production phase; manufacturing and assembling products.
Tertiary economic activity
Service phase; providing good and service for consumption.
Quaternary economic activity
Concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of data and capital (e.g., FIRE - finance, insurance, real estate, ...).
Extensive subsistence agriculture
Characterized by low inputs of labor per unit of land area (spread out over a large area).
Industries involved in the activities of prospecting, exploring, developing, and producing for non-regenerative natural resources from the Earth.
Farms the specialize in cattle or hogs, and may have thousands of head of livestock; can create large amounts of waste runoff and air pollution.
First agricultural revolution
10,000 years ago achieved plant and animal domestication.
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
Hunting and gathering
Obtaining the needed food from hunting for animals, fishing, or gathering plants (including berries, nuts, fruits, and roots).
Intensive subsistence agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expand a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
Growing different types of crops in each row.
The small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers.
Agricultural system practiced in Mediterranean-style climates in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes compromise profitable agricultural operations.
Type of agricultural activity based on herding domesticated animals or raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, or shelter.
The manipulation of plant species to be used by humans.
A large, frequently foreign-owned piece of agricultural land devoted to the production of a single export crop.
Long lots survey pattern
System of dividing the land into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals.
Dispersed rural settlement
Area characterized by farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors rather than alongside other farmers in settlements.
System of cultivation that usually exists in tropical areas where vegetation is cut close to the ground and then ignited, introducing nutrients into the soil.
Nucleated rural settlement
Number of families living in close proximity of each other with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings.
The use of tropical forest clearings for crop production until their fertility is lost, then abandoning them for new sites.
Metes and bounds survey pattern
System of using physical features of the local geography, along with directions and distances, to define the boundaries of a particular piece of land.
Building material rural settlement
(wood, brick, stone, wattle, grass & brush) Houses and buildings are typically built from materials that are abundant in the area.
Village form rural settlement
A number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings.
Sauer, Carl O.
Person who developed theories on origins of vegetative and seed agriculture believing humans had power over their environment.
Second agricultural revolution
Tools and equipment were modified, methods of soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting improved the general organization of agriculture made more efficient.
Township-and-range survey pattern
(U.S.A) - survey's used west of Ohio, after the purchase of the Louisiana Purchase. Land is divided into six-mile square blocks (township), which is then divided into one-mile square blocks (range). Ranges were then broken into smaller parcels to be sold or given to people to develop.
Ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of capital itself, the surplus required to maintain nature's services at the same or increasing level over time. Example, in fisheries the basic natural capital decreases with extraction, but productivity increases; so the sustainable yield is within the ranch that the natural capital together with production are able to provide satisfactory yield.
Third agricultural revolution
Currently in progress, development of genetically modified organisms.
Movement of livestock according to seasonal patterns.
Von Thunen, Johann Heinrich
Person who developed an Agricultural Land Use model that suggested certain crops were grown in direct relation to their distance to market.
Farming of products to sell off the farm.
Producing food necessary for survival of your family.