APUSH Finals Review

In an effort to reach the west Indies, Spain looked westward because
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Terms in this set (237)
Result of three sister farmingproduced a rich diet that led to high population densitiesNot an original territory of the Native American IndiansMesoamericaBusiest seaport in the southern coloniesCharlestonFinancial means of the first permanent colonization came fromA joint-stock companyThe statuses regarding slavery originated fromBarbadosIn Puritan doctrine, the "elect" were also referred to as"Visible Saints"Henry VIII aided the entrance of Protestant beliefs into England when hebroke England's ties with the Catholic church.According to Anne Hutchinson, a dissenter in Massachusetts Baythe truly saved need not bother to obey the laws of God or manIndian policy in early Pennsylvania can be best described asbenevolent.Arrange the following in chronological order: the founding of New York, Massachusetts Bay, Pennsylvania, PlymouthPlymouth Makes Nice PeopleThe seven years war. Also called the French and Indian war 2. William pit the prime minister leads the English to concentrate on north America 3. Peace of Paris signed in 1763Transportation actAn act passed in 1768 that judges were allowed to send convicted felons to the coloniesThe great awakening1. Occurred in many different places at different times among different denominations 2. Jonathan Edwards famous for his sermons that encouraged people to examine their eternal destiny 3. Sinners in the hands of an angry god was his sermon that was very famous 4. Followers of this movement were called new lightsTriangular tradeA trade around the ocean where Africa provided slaves, America sent Materials to europe, and Europe sent guns and rum to africaNew England confederationCreated to use as a defense to protect the new England colonies from native americansWilmot Provisosymbolized the burning issue of slavery in the territories. Was passedgag ruleIntroduced in Washington D.C. by Southerners to prevent Congress from considering the requests of abolitionist petitions. It was an attempt to prevent debate about slaveryGadsden PurchaseRegion of present day southern Arizona and New Mexico purchased by the USA from Mexico in a treaty signed by President Franklin Pierce. Last major addition to the territorial acquisition by the US.Scots-Irishgroup that settled the frontier, made whiskey, and hated the British and other governmental authoritiesThe large profits made by merchants as military suppliers for imperial warsIncreased the wealth of the eighteenth-century colonial eliteThe "triangular trade" involved the sale of rum, molasses, and slaves among the ports of...New England, Africa, and the West Indies.Annapolis ConferenceThis meeting was called by Alexander Hamilton and others to talk about the lowering of taxes and tariffs to increase trade between the states.Three-Fifths FormulaThis formula suggested that slaves be counted as 3/5 of a person for taxes and representation in government since, mistakenly, the Constitutional Convention assumed slaves were only 3/5 as productive as the white labor force.Anti-federalistsopponents of a strong central government who campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independent statesWhiskey Rebelliona protest caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government, Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy.Jay's TreatyWas made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley.Pickeney's Treatyagreement between the united states and spain that changed floridas border and made it easier for american ships to use the port of new orleans.XYZ AffairAn insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.Alien and Sedition ActsThese consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials.Judiciary Act of 1801a law that increased the number of federal judges, allowing President John Adams to fill most of the new posts with Federalists.Great CompromiseCompromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house.American distance from England and the growth of colonial self-government.Led to gradual developments of a colonial sense of independence years before the Revolution.British mercantilismFostered restrictions on colonial manufacturing, trade, and paper currency.The large British debt incurred from defending the colonies in the French and Indian War.Led Grenville to propose the Sugar Act, Quartering Act, and Stamp Act.The passage of the Stamp ActWas greeted in the colonies by the non-import agreements, the Stamp Act Congress, and the forced resignation of stamp agents.British troops sent to enforce order in Boston.Were responsible for the Boston Massacre.The British government's attempt to maintain the East India Company's tea monopolySpurred patriots to stage Boston Tea Party.The Boston Tea PartyPrompted passage of the Intolerable Acts, including the Boston Port ActThe Intolerable ActsPrompted the summoning of the First Continental Congress.Two ideas taken root in the minds of American colonists by the mid-eighteenth centuryRepublicanism and fear of corruption/threat to liberty posed by the arbitrary power of the monarch and his ministers relative to elected representatives in ParliamentNavigation LawsThe set of Parliamentary laws, first passed in 1650, that restricted colonial trade and directed it to the benefit of Britain.Second Continental CongressThe Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that met beginning on May 10, 1775, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, soon after warfare in the American Revolutionary War had begun. It succeeded the First Continental Congress, which met briefly during 1774, also in Philadelphia. The second Congress managed the colonial war effort, and moved incrementally towards independence, adopting the United States Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. By raising armies, directing strategy, appointing diplomats, and making formal treaties, the Congress acted as the de facto national government of what became the United States.[1] With the ratification of the Articles of Confederation, the Congress became known as the Congress of the Confederation.LoyalistsAn American who, during the period of the American Revolution, favored the British side. Also called Tory.PatriotsA name often used to describe the colonists of the British Thirteen United Colonies who rebelled against British control during the American Revolution. It was their leading figures who, in July 1776, declared the United States of America an independent nation. Their rebellion was based on the political philosophy of republicanism, as expressed by pamphleteers, such as Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, and Thomas Paine.Declaration of IndependenceWas more of an explanation of Independence. Written by Thomas Jefferson and was approved on July 4, 1776. He argued that the colonists were justified in servering their connection.Common SenseWritten by Thomas Paine, argued that no where in the universe was a larger body ruled by a smaller body, and this same rule should apply to America and Britain.Treaty of Paris of 1783It formally ended the revolutionary war between America and Britain.Nullification CrisisIn 1832, this broke out when South Carolinians responded angrily to a congressional tariff bill that offered them no relief form the 1828 "tariff of abominations." The legislature summoned an immediate state convention, which voted to nullify the tariff's of 1828 and 1832 and to forbid the collection of duties within a state.Force BillWhen Congress convened early in 1833, Jackson proposed this, which authorized the president to use the military to see that acts of Congress were obeyed. Violence seemed a real possibility.Trail of TearsWhen about 1,000 Cherokee Indians fled to North Carolina, the federal govt. provided them with a small reservation in the Smokey Mountains that survives today. But most of the rest made a long, forced trek to "indian territory," later known as Oklahoma, beginning in the winter of 1838. Thousands, perhaps a quater or more of the emigres, perished before reaching their unwanted destination. In the harsh new reservations, the survivors remembered the journey as this.Panic of 1837When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. The Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress. This depression lasted five years and it was a politcal catastrophe for Van Buren and the Democrats.Who founded the first anti-slavery society?The Philadelphia QuakersShay's rebellion was..an impoverished back-country farmers attempted to enforce their demands of cheap paper money, lighter taxes, and a suspension of property takeoversresult of shay's rebellionThe uprising was crushed but it left fear in the propertied class of mobsOn May 25, 1787, 55 representatives from all of the states except for _________ were sent to ____________ to talk of _____________________ in the future of the countryRhode Island, Philadelphia, the governmentLeader of the Constitutional ConventionGeorge Washington3/5 compromiseslaves were counted as 3/5 a person for population voteFederalistsvoters actually only voted for 1/2 of 1/3 of the government, a stronger central government to establish and maintain order, and from the more well-to-do classesNorthwest Ordinance of 1787set the territory-to-statehood such as first, Each section was numbered and could be sub-divided for sale. then, Once a territory got 60,000 inhabitants they could write a state constitution then send it to Congress for approval.Land Ordinance of 1785law surveyed the lands and divided it into squares to be sold; A section was 1 mile by 1 mile; township was 6 miles by 6 miles; Each section was numbered and could be sub-divided for sale.Virginia Planlarge state plan; representation would be based on a state's populationNew Jersey Plansmall state plan; states should have an equal vote in CongressAnti-Federalistsdid not want the Constitution ratified, believed Constitution gave too much power to the national government, felt that the Constitution had been written by and for the aristocratic folks and that it threatened people's independence and freedoms, and from less-educated classKentucky Resolutionseries of resolutions written anonymously by Jefferson in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional. Later used by Southerners to support secession.Virginia Resolutionless extreme than the Kentucky Resolution, written anonymously by Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional. Later used by Southerners to support secession.Compact theorya theory popular among English political philosophers in the 17th and 18th centuries stressed by Jefferson and Madison. It meant that the 13 sovereign states, in creating the federal government, had entered into a contract regarding its jurisdiction, and the national government was the agent or creation of the states. The individual states were the final judges of whether their agent had broken the contract by overstepping the authority originally grantedPopular SoverieigntyPeople had the powerWork and Labor UnionsEmerged in the 1820's and 1830's; advocated public education reform, a ten-hour workday, an end to debtors prision, and hard currency.Corrupt BargainClay is promised appointment to Secretary of State by Adams in return for his electoral vote. This causes the popular vote to differ from the electoral vote in the Election of 1824.Election of 1824A five-way race that Jackson wins the popular vote, however, Adams wins the electoral vote.Excise TaxHamiltonian economic measure repealed by Jefferson and GallatinMarbury vs. MadisonPrecedent-setting Supreme Court case in which Marshall dismissed a Federalist judge's suit but also declared part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional.Judicial ReviewThe principle, established by Chief Justice Marshall in a famous case, that the Supreme Court can declare laws unconstitutional.Embargo ActJefferson's policy of forbidding the shipment of any goods in or out of the United States.The Battle of TippecanoeBattle in 1811 where General Harrison defeated the Indian warriors Tecumseh and the Prophet.Mr. Madison's WarDerisive Federalist name for the War of 1812 that blamed it on the Republican president.John MarshallFederalist Supreme Court justice whose brilliant legal efforts established the principle of judicial review.Embargo Act of 1807Restrictive trade policy that hurt Britain but hurt American shippers and farmers even more.Aaron BurrFormer vice-president, killer of Alexander Hamilton, and plotter of mysterious secessionist schemes.Henry ClayLeader of Congressional "War Hawks" who pushed for the War of 1812.William Henry HarrisonMilitary leader who defeated Tecumseh's brother, "the Prophet," at the Battle of Tippecanoe.TecumsehShawnee leader who organized a major Indian confederation against U.S. expansionSamuel ChaseFederalist Supreme Court justice impeached by the House in 1804 but acquitted by the Senate.War HawksMilitantly nationalistic western congressmen who were eager for hostilities with the Indians, Canadians, and British.John Adams's Federalists waged adefensive struggle for strong central government and public order.election of 1800John Adams (Federalist) and Thomas Jefferson (Democratic Republican)Jeffersonian Democratic Republicans presented themselves as theguardians of agrarian (agricultural society) purity, liberty and states' rights.Federalists faced several problems (at the start of 1800s) problem 1:(most damaging blow to Federalists) Adams's refusal to go to war with France.Federalists faced several problems (at the start of 1800s) problem 2:Hamiltonian wing of the Federalist party broke it off with President Adams (because they didn't get their war with France).Federalists faced several problems (at the start of 1800s) problem 3:Hamilton verbally attacked Adams in a printed pamphlet, Jeffersonians got ahold of this and published it.Federalists faced several problems (at the start of 1800s) problem 4:their Alien and Sedition Acts had formed enemiesJefferson, earlier, successfully separated:church and stateMacon's Bill No.2completely dismatled the embargo, This act, past by Congress in 1810, formally ended the Embargo Act which left America and it's new president James Madison in a bad predicament that now pointed only on war. Since there was no longer an Embargo act, America attempted to make peace with either France or Britain however as one country wavered the other stayed firm preventing an agreement which eventually lead to war.Non-Intercourse Act 1809replaced the embargo policy by allowing American trade with all countries except Britain and France; like the Embargo Act, this attempt to use American trade as an instrument of foreign policy failed. British and French interference with U.S. shipping continued and the Non-Intercourse Act was repealed in 1810.Outcomes of Embargo-hurt American economy -was not effective at all, didn't do anything -Revived some of Federalist party -reopened old factoriesHartford ConventionMeeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largely viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influenceTreaty of GhentDecember 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.Monroe DoctrineA statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western HemispherePanic of 1819Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of European demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.Treaty of 1818Treaty between Britain and America, it allowed the Americans to share the Newfoundland fisheries with Canada, and gave both countries a joint occupation of the Oregon Territory for the next 10 years.Tariff of 1816This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.protective tariffa tariff imposed to protect domestic firms from import competitionWar of 1812War between the U.S. and Great Britain which lasted until 1814, ending with the Treaty of Ghent and a renewed sense of American nationalismMissouri CompromiseAllowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory (1820)ButternutsSouthern that had been pushed off their lands by plantation business - therefore traveled to the Old Northwest.Era of good feelingsA name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party (Democratic-Republicans)and no partisan conflicts.Two prominent American military heroes who emerged from the War of 1812 wereOliver Hazard Perry and Andrew Jackson.The Hartford Convention proposedthat the peace negotiations at Ghent be pursed bore vigorously.Federalist opposition of the War of 1812 contributed tothe death of the Federalist partyHenry Clay's proposed "American System" provided forhigh protective tariffs and federal spending for internal improvements.Southerners were outraged by the Tallmadge Amendment regarding Missouri's Admission to the Union becausethe amendment proposed the gradual emancipation of slaves throughout the South.As proclaimed by Monroe in his message of 1832, the Monroe Doctrine asserted thatthe United States would not tolerate further European intervention or colonization in the Americas.Which of the following best describes Deism?the belief that God had created the world but allowed it to operate through the laws of natureThe Embargo Act of 1807 had which of the following effects on the U.S.it disrupted American shippingParliament enacted the Stamp Act (1765) primarily toraise revenue to pay for British troops in the coloniesFrance decided to aid the North American Colonies in their war for independence primarily because Francewanted to weaken the British empireThe Navigation Acts were part of the British policy known asMercanitilismShays' Rebellion frightened many Americans whendebt-ridden farmers attacked courts in western MassachusettsUnder the Articles of Confederation the U.S. central government had no power tolevy taxesThe Constitutional convention of 1787 did all of the following EXCEPTdetermine provisions to be included in the Bill of RightsAfter the French and Indian War, British political leaders were determined torequire the North American colonies to pay a greater share of the empires administrative expensesThomas Jefferson believed all of the following EXCEPTa strong national army is essential to keep order in the United StatesThe Constitutional Convention designed the electoral college toinsulate the presidency from the popular willWhich of the following happened as a result of Bacon's Rebellion in 1676?tensions between backcountry farmers and the tidewater gentry were exposedAlexander Hamilton's domestic and foreign policies were directed primarily toward strengthening the federal government byfavoring the interests of the propertied and moneyed classesThe Great Awakening of the 1740s led to a. the growth of religious conformity throughout all the coloniessplits among existing religious denominations and the rise of new churchesThe Northwest Ordinances did which of the followingestablished the terms for settlement and admission of new statesThe primary purpose of the Proclamation of 1763 was toavoid conflict with the trans-Appalachian IndiansThe Halfway Covenant provided for which of the following?the baptism of children of baptized but unconverted PuritansThe North American colonies took advantage of great Britain's policy of salutary neglect towork out trade arrangements to acquire needed products from other countriesWhich of the following was NOT among the factors that made John Quincy Adams presidency a political failure?Adams stubborn and prickly personalityAndrew Jackson's appeal to the common people arose partly becauseAmericans finally understood the ideas of the Declaration of IndependenceAmong the new political developments that appeared in the election of 1832 wereNewspaper endorsements and public financing of presidential campaignsTariff of 1816first protective tariff established, roughly 20-25% on dutiable imports, very bold beginning, designed to promote national manufacturing and business (especially in NE)second Bank of the United Statesrevived in 1816, modeled after first one but had total capital of $35 millionLand Act of 1800first land law, pioneer buy min 160 acres at $2 each over period of 4 years with $80 downpayment, very harsh during bad times, many defaultedTallmadge amendmentno more slaves were to brought in Missouri, emancipation of slave children in the stateKnow-Nothingsagitators against immigrants and Roman CatholicsOne major effect of industrialization was...a rise in gap between rich and poornativist & nativismthe invasion of immigrants in the 1840s and 1850s gave rise to these movements based on fear, hatred, and mistrust of immigrants.Tammany Hallthe powerful New York political machine under the control of Irish-Americans in the latter half of the 19th century.Horace Greeleythe idealistic and merciless foe of slavery who published the weekly New York Tribune and whose personal journalism had influence outside of New York state.American Temperance Societythe organization formed in Boston in 1862 that implored drinkers to sign temperance pledges.Second Great Awakeninga religious revival movement during the early 19th century in the United StatesTranscendentalisma term associated with a group of new ideas in literature that was a protest against the general state of culture and societyDeismthe religion where believers relied on reason rather than revelation and on science rather than BibleOneida CommunityRadical experimental community, founded in New York in 1848; practiced free love, birth control, and eugenic selection of parents to produce superior offspring; flourished for more than thirty years, supported by its artisans who made steel traps.Gag ResolutionStrict rule passed by prosouthern Congressmen in 1836 to prohibit all discussion of slavery in the House of RepresentativesAmerican Anti-Slavery SocietyAbolitionist society founded by William Lloyd Garrison, who advocated the immediate abolition of slavery. By 1838, the organization had more than 2500,000 members across 1,350 chapters.Free-soilersA growing number of northern people, including Lincoln, who opposed extending slavery to the Western territories. They did not outright oppose slavery. People of this stamp swelled their ranks as the Civil War approached.Denmark VeseyA free black man who led a rebellion in Charleston, South Carolina in 1822. Vessey and more than thirty followers were publicly strung from the gallows.OligarchyA government by the few. Pre-civil war the south operated in this way; heavily influenced by a planter aristocracy.Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)An act passed by Congress in 1882 which prohibited further immigration to the US by Chinese Laborers. Renewed 10 yrs later, this was the first major act of Congress to restrict immigration on the basis of race and nationality.Wade-Davis billThe July 1864 bill sponsored by Senator Benjamin Wade of Ohio and Congressman Henry W. Davis of Maryland, emerged from Congress with 3 specific conditions for southern readmission. First, it demanded a "majority" of white male citizens participating in the creation of a new government. Second, for a person to vote or be a delegate to constitutional conventions, they had to take an oath that they had not assisted in Confederate War effort. Finally, all officers ranked above a lieutenant, and all civil officials in the Confederacy, would be disfranchised and declared not a citizen of the US.Black codesThese new codes required that former slaves to carry passes, have a curfew, live in housing provided by a landowner and still give up hope of entering many desirable occupations. Stiff vagrancy laws and restrictive labor contracts bound freed people to plantations, and anti- enticement laws punished anyone who tried to lure these workers to other employment. In state school and orphanages, blacks were excluded entirely.Reconstruction Acts (1867-8)The first if these acts was passed in March 1867. This plan was brought about to decide which the southern states were actually readmitted to the Union, included only a part of the Radical program. Union generals and troops were commissioned in five separate military districts in the South. The act assured freedmen the right to vote in elections and each state had to ratify the 14th amendment, to ratify its new constitution by majority vote and to submit it to Congress for agreement. The 2nd, 3rd and 4th Acts were passed between March 1867 and March 1868.Tenure of Office ActPassed by Congress in 1867, to give the senate power to approve changes in the president's cabinet. Its purpose was to protect Secretary of War Stanton who sympathized with the Radicals. But, this law went against the tradition that a president controlled appointments to his own cabinet. This was passed by a two- thirds override of presidential vetoes.Main Failure of Radical ReconstructionThe most permanent failures of Reconstruction was social and economical. Reconstruction failed to change the South's social structure or its sharing of means and power. A mixture of complicated fiscal problems, mistakes mad by Republicans, hostility between races and fear brought down the Republican government. In the 1870s, the North progressively lost the political willpower to maintain the Reconstruction in the South. This was because a huge economic and social transformation occurred in their own region as well as in the West.Compromise 1877The 1876 election, Tilden, who was the democratic governor of New York ran for President against Rutherford B. Hayes, the Republican nominee. The electoral votes taken from Louisiana, Florida and South Carolina were borderline, and both parties thought that they won. To resolve this issue Congress formed a fifteen member electoral commission, and there were 8 Republicans and 7 democrats since Republicans had the majority in the House and they all nominated for the right political party so it seemed Hayes would triumph if Congress accepted this. At first Congress was uncertain since many citizens were mad. Northern and southern democrats determined not to challenge the election of a Republican who was not going to carry on Reconstruction polices in the South. That is when Hayes became President.Understand all aspects and effects of the Homestead Act.It was a piece of legislation passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln in 1862. People could lay rightful claim to a set amount of acreage if they lived on it for five years while also farming it. The Homestead Act contributed significantly to Westward expansion in North America. Encouraging people to establish footholds well outside the original 13 colonies. The southern states feared that homesteading would create more Free states and territories.Manifest DestinyMany people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.Spot ResolutionsResolutions offered by Congressman Lincoln demanding to know the precise location where the Mexicans had allegedly shed American blood on "American" soil.Tariff of 1842A protective tariff signed by President John Tyler that raised the general level of duties to where they had been before the Compromise Tariff of 1833.Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgogave Texas to America,yielded the area stretching westward to Oregon and the ocean, including California, for $15 million.Wilmont Amendmentstated that the Mexican territory should remain slave-free. Never passed by Senate because the South didn't want to lose any possible slave states that could arise.Joint ResolutionAct of both houses of Congress by which Texas was annexedTyler's refusal to carry out his own Whig party's policies split...The Whigs and caused the entire cabinet except Webster to resignPolk's frustration at Mexico's refusal to sell California helped...Lead to a controversial confrontation with mexico along the Texas borderThe Wilmot Proviso heated...the slavery controversy between the North and the Southfree soil partynorthern men ardently against slavery, distrusted taylor and case aroused by conspiracy of client democrat and whig platformsafter the compromise of 1850 passed, this began, secession talk stopped for a whilesecond era of good feelingsfugitive slave law of 1850bloodhound bill, strongly opposed in north, slaves were not allowed to testify on their behalf and di not get trial by jury, north feared precedent would be set for whiteskansas nebraska actnebraska territory would be split into two sections, settled by popular sovereignty, assumingly pro slave kansas and free state nebraskamissouri compromisethe kansas nebraska act repealed this, which decreed no territories over the 36 30 line would allow slavery, esp. in nebraska territoryPacific Railway Acts (1862)Congress chartered Union Pacific and Central Pacific to build transcontinental railroadoverbuilding and competitioncaused serious problems for railroadsPanic of 1893caused collapse of railroad industryAndrew CarnegieSteelJohn D. RockefellerOilJ.P. MorganFinanceLecompton Constitutionprovided that people were allowed to vote for the constitution with or without slaveryDred ScottSlave master took him north, given to another slave master after his master died. He claimed he had been free. Supreme Court overruled the decision to free Dred Sccott since he was property not a person.Missouri Compromise...had been unconstitutional all alongPanic of 1857California gold rush-inflation overgrowth of grain over speculation in land and railroadsLincolnclaimed there would be no conflict or war unless South provoked itUnion Strengthshuge economy many more available to fightProblems for Southweak government no real national power surplus of cotton in south difficult to send troops4 C'sBefore Civil War- Change- rights to vote for black men Civil War- Church: 2nd great awakening After Civil War- Corruption: rich people get richer Civil War- Culling: killing of Indians and buffaloFreedman's Bureauallowed blacks to be skilled and trained to become full fledged american citizens.Lincoln's 10% plan10% of the south's voters would pledge and take an oath to the unionRadical Republicanswanted south to be punishedWade-Davis Bill50% of south had to pledge and take an oath to the uionReconstruction Actdivided south into 5 military zones so they couldn't secede againImpeachment of Johnsoncongress wanted Johnson out but senate had him stayGilded Agedominated by corrupt politicians in congress, era looked good but below the surface there were problemsSamuel Tildenprosecutor took Tammany Hall downCredit Mobilier ConspiracyCorrupt company. railroad construction company that paid itself huge sums of money for small railroad constructionPanic of 1873too many factories and railroads and over speculation cause inflationResumption Act of 1875withdrawal of greenbacksGreenback labor party 1878wanted more money to go to the silver standardRepublican Party SplittingCorruption and the Spoils system2nd corrupt bargainsouth got its old ways back and republicans got the white houseCompromise of 1877abandoned the blacks in the south by withdrawing federal troopsJim Crowsegregated blacks and whites. asserted white supremacyElection of 1880Garfield barely got into office because of so much corruptionPendleton Actpeople should get government jobs you are qualified for. based on aptitude not the "buddy" systemPopulist Partygroup founded by farmers in 1892. main call: poor people wanted inflation graduated income tax regulation of railroads less immigration shorter work days1893 Depressiondepression started government = no money too much competitionTranscontinental RailroadUnion Pacific and Credit Mobilier Scandals Union Pacific east to west Central Pacific west to eastIndustrializationrailroads stitched the nation together generated a huge market and class of millionairesCorruption of the railsabuse public bribed judges and legislaturesTrusts (Pools)poor people get ripped off when companies ally togetherThe Grangeformed by farmers to combat corruptionInterstate Commerce Act of 1887passed an act but didn't enforce it tells railroads they can't cheat their customersThe Gospel of Wealtha way to defend the rich many of the newly rich had worked from poverty to wealthCorporations are people14th amendment used to defend trusts and the judges agreedExploited Immigrantsfederal gov. did nothing to help the immigrants assimilate into american societyTenement Life in big cityvery cramped with poor living conditionsBigotrykeeps wages down and unions don't want themTuskegee Institutean industrial school for blacks teaching students useful skills and tradeW.E.B. Duboisfirst black man to get a PhD and demanded complete equality for blacksHomestead Act of 1862allowed folks to get as much as 160 acres of land for 5years for $30Homestead Act fraudhouse must be 12x14 inchesDawes Actdissolved legal entities of tribes and indians had to act and live like whitesWounded Knee MassacreGhost dance brutally stamped out massacre marks the end of the indian warsFactors that destroyed Native American Life1 railroad 2 white man's diseases 3 extermination of buffalo 4 wars 5 loss of their landBroken TreatiesFort Laramie 1851 and Fort Atkinson 1853- indians will not be asked to move again whites frequently swindled indians