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Peds- Chp 5: Health Promotion of Preschoolers (3 to 6 Years)
Terms in this set (33)
Weight: How much should be gained per year?
Preschoolers should gain about 2 to 3 kg (4.5 to 6.5 lb) per year.
Height: How much should they grow each year?
Preschoolers should grow about 6.5 to 9 cm (2.5 to 3.5 in) per year.
Average Height and Weight of 3 year old
Weight: 14.5 kg (32 lb)
Height: 95 cm (37.5 in)
Average Height and Weight of 4 year old
Weight: 16.5 kg (36.5 lb)
Height: 103 cm (40.5 in)
Average Height and Weight of 5 year old
Weight: 18.5 kg (41 lb)
Height: 110 cm (43.5 in)
Preschoolers' bodies evolve away from the characteristically unsteady wide stances and protruding abdomens of toddlers, into a more graceful, posturally
erect, and sturdy physicality.
Fine Motor Skills
Preschoolers should show improvement in fine motor
skills, which will be displayed by activities like copying
figures on paper and dressing independently.
Gross Motor Skills: 3 years old
-rides a tricycle
-Jumps off bottom step
-stands on one foot for a few seconds
Gross Motor Skills: 4 years old
-skips and hops on one foot
-throws ball overhead
-catches ball reliably
Gross Motor Skills: 5 years old
-Walks backward with heel to toe
-throws and catches a ball with ease
Cognitive Development: Piaget
The preconceptual thought transitions to the phase of intuitive thought around the age of 4 years.
The phase of intuitive thought lasts until the age of 7 years.
● The preschooler moves from totally egocentric thoughts
to social awareness and the ability to consider the viewpoints of others.
● Preschoolers make judgments based on visual appearances.
Variations in thinking during this age include:
◯ Magical thinking: Thoughts are all powerful and can cause events to occur.
◯ Animism: Ascribing lifelike qualities to inanimate objects.
◯ Centration: Focus on one aspect instead of considering all possible alternatives.
◯ Time: Preschoolers begin to understand the sequence
of daily events. Time is best explained to them in relation to an event. By the end of the preschool years, children have a better comprehension of time-oriented words.
How many words does the vocabulary or a preschooler increase to by the end of the 5th year?
more than 2,100 words by the end of the fifth year.
● Preschoolers speak in sentences of three to four words
at the ages of 3 and 4 years,
and four to five words at the age of 4 to 5 years.
● This age group enjoys talking, and language becomes
their primary method of communication.
Psychosocial Developement: Erikson
Initiative vs. Guilt
● Preschoolers become energetic learners, despite not
having all of the physical abilities necessary to be successful at everything.
● Guilt can occur when preschoolers believe they have
misbehaved or when they are unable to accomplish a task.
● Guiding preschoolers to attempt activities within their capabilities while setting limits is appropriate.
Psychosocial Development: Kohlberg
● Early preschoolers continue in the good-bad orientation
of the toddler years, and actions are taken based on whether or not it will result in a reward or punishment.
● Older preschoolers primarily take actions based on satisfying personal needs, yet are beginning to understand the concepts of justice and fairness.
Preschoolers feel good about themselves with regard
to mastering skills that allow independence (dressing,
During stress, insecurity, or illness, preschoolers can regress to previous immature behaviors or develop habits (nose picking, bed-wetting, thumb sucking).
At what age do preschoolers begin comparing themselves with peers?
By the age of 5 years, preschoolers begin comparing
themselves with peers.
● Preschoolers begin to recognize differences in appearances, and identify what is considered acceptable
● Poor understanding of anatomy makes intrusive experiences, such as injections or cuts, frightening to preschoolers. Therefore, preschoolers believe it is important to use bandages after an injury.
● Preschoolers generally do not exhibit stranger anxiety
and have less separation anxiety.
● Changes in daily routine are tolerated, but they can
develop more imaginary fears.
● Prolonged separation, such as during hospitalization,
can provoke anxiety.
Favorite toys and appropriate play should be used to help ease preschoolers' fears.
● Pretend play is healthy and allows preschoolers to
determine the difference between reality and fantasy.
Age Appropriate Activities
What kind of play do preschoolers do?
Parallel play shifts to associative play during the preschool
years. Play is not highly organized, but cooperation does exist between children.
Appropriate activities include:
● Playing ball
● Putting puzzles together
● Riding tricycles
● Playing pretend and dress-up activities
● Role playing
● Hand puppets
● Simple sewing
● Reading books
● Wading pools
● Sand boxes
● Computer programs
● Musical toys
● Electronic games
Immunizations: 4-6 years old
Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis (DTaP); measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR);
and inactivated poliovirus (IPV)
Immunizations: 3-6 years old
Yearly seasonal influenza vaccine;
trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine;
or live, attenuated influenza vaccine by nasal spray
How many calories/energy do preschoolers consume? And how much is it compared to adults?
Preschoolers consume approximately half the amount of
energy that adults do (1,800 kcal).
When are kids usually more open to sampling different foods?
Finicky eating can remain a behavior in preschoolers,
but often by 5 years of age they become more willing to
sample different foods.
How much protein do preschoolers need per day? In addition to adequate intake of what minerals and vitamins?
Preschoolers need 13 to 19 g/day (0.45 to 0.67 oz/day) of
in addition to adequate intake of calcium, iron, folate, and vitamins A and C.
● Saturated fats should be less than 10% of preschoolers'
total caloric intake,
and total fat over several days should be 20% to 30% of total caloric intake.
● With obesity rates in young children increasing, it is recommended that preschoolers have 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day,
2 hr or less of screen time,
0 servings of sugar-sweetened beverages,
and 1 hr of physical activity per day
How much sleep do preschoolers need? And naps?
On average, preschoolers need about 12 hr of sleep per
day, and infrequently take daytime naps.
Sleep and Rest
● Sleep disturbances frequently occur during early childhood, and problems range from difficulty going to bed to night terrors.
Appropriate interventions vary, but can include the following.
◯ Keep a consistent bedtime routine.
◯ Use a night-light in the room.
◯ Provide the child with a favorite toy.
◯ Leave a drink of water by the bed.
◯ Reassure preschoolers who are frightened, but avoid allowing preschoolers to sleep with their parents.
● Eruption of deciduous (primary) teeth is finalized by the
beginning of the preschool years.
● Parents need to assist and supervise brushing and flossing to ensure it is performed correctly to prevent
● Trauma to teeth is common in preschool-age children and should be immediately assessed by a dentist.
Injury Prevention: Bodily harm
● Firearms should be kept in locked cabinets or containers.
● Preschoolers should be taught stranger safety.
● Preschoolers should be taught to wear protective equipment (helmet, pads)
Injury Prevention: Burns
● Hot water thermostats should be set at or below 49°C (120°F).
● Working smoke detectors should be kept in the home.
● Preschoolers should have sunscreen applied when outside.
Injury Prevention: Drowning
● Preschoolers should not be left unattended in bathtubs.
●Preschoolers should be closely supervised when near the
pool or any other body of water
● Preschoolers should be taught to swim.
Injury Prevention: MVA
● Preschoolers should use a federally approved car restraint according to manufacturer recommendations.
● When the forward-facing car seat is outgrown, the preschooler transitions to a booster seat.
●It is recommended that children use an approved car restraint system until they achieve a height of 145 cm (4
feet, 9 in) or 8 to 12 years old.
● Safest area for children is the backseat of the car.
● Supervise preschool-age children when playing outside, and do not allow them to play near a curb or parked cars.
● Teach pedestrian safety rules to preschool-age children.
◯ Stand back from curb while waiting to cross the street.
◯ Before crossing the street, look left, then right, then to the left again.
◯ Walk on the left facing traffic when there are no sidewalks
◯ At night, wear light colored clothing with fluorescent material attached.
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