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112 terms

wildlife management mammal scat, teeth, families/orders, birds, nutrition/digestion

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order - Didelphimorphia
family - Didelphidae
Virginia opossum
order - Soricomorpha
family - Soricidae
short-tailed shrew
order - Soricomorpha
family - Talpidae
star-nosed mole
order - Chiroptera
family - Vespertilionidae
mouse-eared bats
order - Lagomorpha
family - Leporidae
Eastern cottontail rabbit
order - Rodentia
family - Sciuridae
groundhog (and squirrels, flying squirrels, chipmunks)
order- Rodentia
family - Castoridae
beaver
order - Rodentia
family - Muridae
muskrat (and woodrats, voles, nutria - new world rats and mice)
order - Carnivora
family - Canidae
coyote (and fox, wolf...)
order - Carnivora
family - Ursidae
black bear
order - Carnivora
family - Procyonidae
raccoon
order - Carnivora
family - Mustelidae
river otter (and weasels, minks)
order - Carnivora
family - Mephitidae
striped skunk (and spotted)
order - Carnivora
family - Felidae
bobcat (and cougar)
order - Artiodactyla
family - Suidae
boar
order - Artiodactyla
family - Cervidae
elk (and deer)
what is a heterodont?
an animal with different types of teeth - like mammals - allowing for more efficient processing of food and faster digestion
what is a homodont?
an animal where all teeth are the same type (like a reptile)
what are the four types of teeth?
1) incisors - used for biting, feeding, grooming - modified into chisels in rodents
2) canines - used for stabbing, holding prey, defense. never more than 2 in each jaw. absent in rodents, small in herbivores.
3) premolars - used for shearing, crushing. are deciduous - milk set replaced by adult set. variable in size/shape
4) molars - crushing, grinding. produced only by adults. variable in size and shape.
what is a diastema?
a toothless gap created by a lack of incisors
what is the purpose of high crowns and deep ridges in molars?
often seen in herbivores. high crowns prolong the life of the tooth and deep ridges improve grinding ability.
what do dental formulae represent?
the number of each type of tooth in a jaw. always the same on each side of the upper and each side of lower, but not necessarily between upper and lower. consists of 8 numbers in 2 rows. the order is incisor, canine, premolar, molar. total number of teeth calculated by doubling each row and adding together.
cottontail rabbit: 2 0 3 3 = 28
1 0 2 3
what is the maximum number of teeth for placental mammals?
3/3 incisors, 4/4 premolars, 3/3 molars
what is the maximum number of teeth for marsupials?
5/4 incisors, 3/3 premolars, 4/4 molars
what are carnassials?
specialized shearing teeth in carnivores. usually the fourth premolar in the upper jaw and the first molar in the lower jaw - P4/m1. some like felines are P3/m1. use capital letter in upper jaw.
what is "sign?"
indications of an animal's passage through an area not directly related to leaving tracks. ex: stones turned over, scat, scratches (bears), evidence of feeding on plants
what can we learn about an animal from examining its scat?
diet, location, size, territory, health (parasites), relative abundance.
important clues especially for studying mammals because many are nocturnal or corpuscular (dawn or dusk). can be used in conjunction with infrared triggered cameras.
where can scat be found?
some animals leave scat on exposed outcropping (fox, for territorial marking), some bury it (cats)
what animals have generally unconsolidated scat?
raccoons and possums
what are the differences between dog and fox/coyote scat?
dogs generally blunter ends, fox more tapered and often contain hair, especially toward the taper.
why is bird scat white?
contains uric acid
describe some cat scat qualities
few bone fragments (highly digestive stomach acid), often buried, often segmented
describe deer scat
oval with nipple at one end, dimple at the other, fairly dark, often in a pile
do deer have incisors?
yes. only on the lower jaw. elk have "elk tooth" on upper jaw
do rabbits or rodents have canines?
no. just incisors in the front
how does aging affect a deer's dentition?
deers lose 1 mm of tooth height as they age
what is a scent station?
a circular area by a trail or drinking area with a stake in it to attract animals marking territory. used in conjunction with automatically triggered camera.
define plantigrade
flat footed gait (raccoon, bear. many animals with walking gaits)
define digitigrade
walking on the toes or toes and pad of foot (canids, felines)
whats an easy way to distinguish between dog and coyote/fox tracks?
dogs will zigzag a lot
what is the kingdom, phylum, and class of mammals?
kingdom - Animalia
phylum - Chordata
class - Mammalia
what are some basic mammalian traits?
hair
mammary glands
viviparous (except monotremes)
endothermic
placental (mostly)
what is the function of the placenta and what mammals lack it?
only organ that grows as needed
protects and provides nutrition for fetus
marsupials lack this
name the three mammalian foot structures
plantigrade - walk with full foot including heel
digitigrade - walks on toes and/or palm
unguligrade - walks on very tips of toes (hooves)
describe some traits of the opossum
didelphous - 2-branched uterous
solitary, omnivorous, wanderers, nocturnal, babies stay in pouch 2 months
describe some shrew traits
tiny, small stomach/high metabolism, mostly insectivorous, tunnelers. use pitfall traps to collect them
describe some mole traits
fossorial (lives underground)
tunnels close to surface to forage and deep when its cold
1 litter a year
eats insects n worms n some plants
has EYMER'S ORGAN on snout - sensory. can contain up to 30,000 of them.
good swimmers
describe some bat traits
insectivores, eat destructive moths, 20% of all mammals are bats, being killed by white nose syndrome
describe some rabbit traits
copraphagous - eat own droppings to get most nutrition so produce 2 types of pellets. 1) soft pellet they re-consume and 2) hard waste pellet (the kind you usually find)
diurnal, browsers, altricial young (for a month), don't hibernate.
females can breed once a month for 6-7 months/year. larger litters up north but less often
describe the new england cottontail
a smaller rabbit with shorter ears.
rare in appalachians and endangered in some states. early successional and more susceptible to predation
what is the defining trait of rodents?
chiseled incisors. front of tooth has more enamel so rear wears faster to create the chisel. grow constantly so must gnaw to survive
describe some squirrel traits
hunted.
regulate body temperature by controlling flow of blood to n from tail - bundle of nerves at base of tail can block blood flow to keep core warm.
not social - usually one per nest (excluding young)
make dreys - nest of leaves/twigs for winter - don't hibernate
diurnal
eat hard mast, fungi, insects, pupae, fruit, sometimes nestlings
can rotate hind foot 180 degrees
red squirrel at higher elevations
describe flying squirrels
nocturnal, non-hibernators that nest in cavities or nest boxes. southern common n can be attic pest. northern endangered & found at higher elevations.
describe the groundhog
herbivorous, ground-dwelling, burrows have multiple entrances - defecate outside or in latrine chamber, open areas, true hibernator - can lose half of weight, increased range because of man-made open areas.
describe the eastern chipmunk
winter torpor (eat & defecate) using cached food. partly fossorial, seed-eaters, diurnal, food and latrine chambers in burrows
describe beavers
yellow incisors, copraphagous, feed on inner bark and herbaceous vegetation, monogamous, stay with parents til 2y.o., largest N.A. rodent, aquatic - reduce heartrate to submerge 15 minutes
describe muskrats
critical for maintaining marsh habitats - eat emergent vegetation to allow sunlight to penetrate water and stimulate plant diversity
describe coyotes
native to the SW but spread nation-wide.
likes edges, suburbs
eats everything
can mate for 12 years
forms small packs
describe the red wolf
fed endangered SE species
eats rabbits, rodents, deer
forest & marsh habitat
small packs
describe the red fox
most widely distributed terrestrial carnivore in the world.
edge species
omnivorous - prefers small mammals
adaptable
food cachers
monogamous
describe the grey fox
prefers interiors, can climb trees
describe black bears
true hibernation w/ anal plug - eat skunk cabbage and squaw root to open it.
0-3 cubs - 4 in asheville!
eat hard mast, insects, plants, fruit, fawns, carrion
describe raccoons
edge-living omnivores
solitary mostly
prefer hollows as dens
front paws 4x as sensitive as rear
most common carrier of rabies
torpor in cold winters
fatten up in fall - can gorge on corn
describe river otters
local populations extirpated and then reintroduced in past 15 years. eat crayfish, fish, active year round
describe skunks
nocturnal, omnivorous, winter torpor
spotted more arboreal, striped more edge species.
more spotted in appalachians than striped
describe bobcats
top predator, eat stomach contents to get vitamins, rabbits preferred food, like open areas, only spotted cat legal to hunt
describe mountain lions
hyper-carnivore = diet at least 70% meat
federally endangered but more numerous out west.
lurk and lurch predator
wander long distances
extirpated in appalachians in 1800s
active twilight and night
describe boars
4 toes but only middle two touch ground.
boars native to europe but bred w feral pigs.
no sweat glands.
omnivorous - damage soil and vegetation
18-20 year lifespan.
males solitary, females social (family groups).
game animal with bag limit despite being a pest.
what is a defining trait of cervidae?
have a rumen with cellulose-digesting microbes. they regurgitate cud for further processing of vegetative matter.
describe elk
males have deciduous antlers and compete for sole rights to female harem.
extirpated in 1800s, reintroduced in cataloochee.
mixed trees and open areas. compete w deer for food.
preyed on by wolves in yellowstone, bears in cataloochee
describe white-tailed deer
populations increasing (lack of predators)
early successional
can be pests
velvet on deciduous antlers help cool animal in summer
what is the defining trait of birds (aves) and how was it derived?
feathers - from dinosaurs which likely had them initially as insulation
describe anseriformes
ducks, geese
game species precocial young, webbed feet, sexually dimorphic plumage, most have flattened bills, mergansers eat fish, geese are grazers
describe charadriiformes
waterbirds or derived from waterbirds - woodcock n snipe are game species
describe galliformes
fowl
game birds, largish, terrestrial, large gizzard, most are cryptically colored, large egg clutches, precocial young
describe falconiformes
hawks, falcons
carnivores, mostly diurnal, short hooked bill, sharp talons, semi-precocial young (downy, eyes open and can peck food)
describe ciconiiformes
storks, new world vultures
contain catahrtidae - "cleansing" vultures
describe piciformes
woodpeckers
zygodactyl foot, chisel beak, barbed tongue, stiff tail feathers, red-cockaded is fed. endangered
describe passeriformes
perching birds
mostly land birds, bony palate for vocalizations, relatively large brains (must learn songs), high metabolisms
describe corvidae
crows, ravens
omnivorous, gregarious
describe paridae
chickadees, titmice
nest in cavities or boxes, sexes similar, seed eaters
describe troglodytidae
wrens
winter wren is altitudinal migrant, mostly insectivorous, cave-like nests near ground
describe turdidae
thrushes
neo-tropical migrants
describe parulidae
wood warblers
small, active, insectivorous (caterpillars), many winter in the tropical americas, sensitive to deforestation and fragmentation, have distinctive songs, can help reduce pests (spruce bud worm)
describe cardinalidae
cardinals, grosbeaks
ex: rose-breasted grosbeak
describe fringillidae
finches
seed-eaters, house finch originally west coast species
describe emberizidae
new world sparrows, eastern towhee
describe thraupidae
neotropical migrants (tanagers)
BIRD FEATHERS
BIRD FEET
describe falconidae
falcons
describe acciptridae
hawks
describe cathartidae
vultures
describe parulidae
wood warblers
what things do animals need nutritionally?
proteins, fats/lipds, carbohydrates, vitamins/minerals, water
why are lipids important?
very energy dense, vital for torpor/hibernation, dogwood important vegetative source
why are proteins important?
some are essential amino acids - needed for survival. ruminants can synthesize these through microbes in their gut.
how do young ruminants get the microbes needed into their guts?
coprophagy
from their mothers' udders
why are carbohydrates important?
energy source
plant based
why can energy from carbohydrates be difficult to get?
nutritional content surrounded by difficult to digest cell walls (cellulose/lignin) - the older the plant the more cell walls n less nutrition. fungi use cellulose enzymes to break this down, herbivores use internal microbes.
why is digestibility of food an important wildlife management issue?
important to balance the benefits of older vegetation - providing cover and seeds, with younger vegetation - higher nutritional content. ex: tall grass - cover/seeds. short grass nutrition. ex: smaller new branches twigs and buds most nutrition, larger branches - cover.
what are allelochemicals?
anti-herbivory compunds.
ex: black cherry twigs, red oak acorns
animals can counteract by geophagia or some ruminants have toxin-neutralizing compounds.
what are 2 reasons for geophagia?
animals get vital minerals or can counteract allelochemicals
what is "energetics?"
the study of energy consumption and processing by animals
in general terms, what happens to food after consumption?
some digested, undigested goes to fecal energy. some lost as urine, or methane. some metabolized - this energy can be lost as heat or respiration or go toward secondary production - growth and reproduction
what is the equation of energetics?
CONSUMED = Fecal + Methane + Urine + Respiration + Growth + Reproduction
of carnivores, omnivores, and herbivores, which have the simplest and most complex digestive tracts?
simple -> complex...
carnivore, omnivore, herbivore
describe the main parts of the avian digestive system
crop - store, soften food (large in seed eaters, small in carnivores)
gizzard - grind up food
intestines - absorb nutrients
ceca - microbes digest food (birds have two)
cloaca - exit
what are the two digestive systems for herbivorous mammals?
hindgut fermenting or foregut fermenting. cecum or rumen to digest tough cell walls.
describe the main parts of the hindgut fermenting system
single cecum between small and large intestine where microbes digest and provide vitamins.
ex: copraphagous animals like beavers
describe the main parts of the foregut fermenting system
4 part stomach.
1) rumen - food is softened and churned in liquid with some microbial digestion .
2) reticulum - microbial digestion before regurgitated as cud.
3) omasum - microbe fermenting. cannot be regurgitated
4) abomasum - acidic digestion only - absorbs vitamins and digests microbes.
then out to intestine.
what is the digestive order in the fermenting system?
food swallowed ---> rumen ---> reticulum ---> regurgitated as cud ---> rumen ---> omasum ---> abomasum