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Chapter (4 Openstax) (5 Sathasivan)
Terms in this set (98)
________________________ - double-membrane structure that constitutes the outermost portion of the nucleus
Parts of the nucleus (5)
nucleus, nucleoplasm, nuclear pore, nuclear envelope, chromatin
____________________ - entire region of a cell between the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope
Cells that specialize in absorption are folded into fingerlike projections called ___________________
What controls passage of ions, organic molecules, and oxygen into/out of cell?
________________________ - lipid molecule with 2 fatty acid chains and a phosphate-containing group
Major function of plasmodesmata
channels connect 2 plant cells
Major functions of cytoskeleton elements (2)
maintain cell shape, form mitotic spindle
Major function of central vacuole
maintain pressure against cell wall
Major function of peroxisomes
Major function of lysosomes
digest food and waste materials
Major function of mitochondria
Major function of rough ER
make secretory and membrane proteins
Major function of smooth ER
Major function of ribosomes
Major functions of cell wall (3)
protection, maintain cell shape, prevent dehydration
What's the purpose of Flagella?
What's the purpose of Pili?
exchange genetic material during reproduction
What's the purpose of Fimbriae?
attach to a host cell
What function does capsule have in prokaryotes?
enables cell to attach to surfaces
Name 4 components that all cells share
ribosomes, DNA, cytoplasm, plasma membrane
Name 4 examples of Eukaryotic organisms
animals, plants, fungi, protists
Name 2 examples of Prokaryotic organisms
DNA found in ____________.
single, no, nucleoid
Prokaryotes can have either:
flagella, pili, fimbriae
Is prokaryotes or eukaryotes smaller?
Name 2 ways that cells can become more efficient
divide, develop organelles to perform specific tasks
Why is small size necessary for cells?
if too large then plasma membrane won't have area necessary for rate of diffusion required
Name 2 pros of prokaryotes small size
ions and organic molecules diffuse fast to parts of cell, waste diffuses fast
Eukaryotic cells have:
membrane-bound nucleus, membrane-bound organelles, chromosomes
_______________________ - semi-solid fluid in nucleus, holds chromatin and nucleolus
____________________ - structures within the nucleus that are made up of DNA
How is DNA organized in prokaryotes?
single circular chromosome
How is DNA organized in eukaryotes?
What happens when a cell is in the growth/maintenance phases (involving chromosomes)
proteins attach to chromosomes
When proteins connect to chromosomes, what are the protein-chromosome complexes called?
What is the nucleolus in charge of?
Aggregating ribosomal RNA with proteins
________________ are cellular structures responsible for protein synthesis
Ribsomes consist of _ subunits that are called what?
2, large, small
Where do ribosomes receive their orders for protein synthesis from?
What travels to the ribsome to translate code into specific order of amino acids?
What is the building block of protein?
What is responsible for making ATP?
What is a cell's main energy-carrying molecule?
What represents short-term stored energy of a cell?
What's the process of making ATP called?
Are mitochondria double or single membrane organelles?
Mitochondria have their own ____________ and ___________
What carries out oxidation reactions that break down fatty acids and amino acids?
What detoxifies many poisons that enter the body? (like alcohol)
What's the name of the peroxisomes in plants?
In plants, what's the name of the organelle that is responsible for converting stored fats into sugars?
What's membrane-bound sacs that function in storage and transport?
What's the difference between vesicles and vacuoles?
vesicles can fuse with membrane systems within cell and vacuole can't
What's a difference between animal cells and plant cells?
plants have cell wall, chloroplasts, large central vacuole
animals have centrosome, lysosomes
Microtubule-organizing center found near nuclei of animal cells
A cylinder of centriole has _ triplets of microtubules
Where do all microtubules originate?
Animals, plants, bacteria:
Where are lysosomes found?
What is lysosome's function
Where do digestive processes take place in plants?
What do the enzymes in lysosomes break down? Name at least 2
proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, nucleic acids, worn-out organelles
Is the pH in lysosomes higher or lower than cytoplasm?
Rigid covering that protects the cell, provides structural support, gives shape to cell
_________ and ___________ kingdoms have cell walls
What is the major organic molecule in cell wall?
Chloroplasts have their own _________ and __________
plant organelles that carry out photosynthesis
Chloroplasts have _________ and __________ membranes
Within the space enclosed by inner membrane is a set of interconnected and stacked fluid-filled membrane sacs called what
Chloroplasts contain a green pigment called what?
What does chlorophyll do?
Captures light energy that drives reactions of photosynthesis
Name the 3 major types of cytoskeleton elements.
microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments
Name the 2 monomers that make up microtubules.
Name the 2 monomers that make up microfilaments.
G actin, F actin
What monomers make up the intermediate filament?
5 different proteins from the keratin family
What are the 4 functions of microtubules?
mobility, cell shape, chromosome, serves as tracks for movement of organelles
What are the 5 functions of microfilaments?
mobility, cell shape and change, muscle contractions, cytoplasmic streaming, cleavage furrow
Name the 5 functions of intermediate filaments.
structural support, tensile strength, cell shape, anchoring nucleus and other organelles, formation of nuclear lamina
Proteins that attach themselves to microtubules help with what?
intracellular and cellular movement
Cell walls are only found in? (4 things)
bacteria, fungi, protists, plants
Plant cell walls contain polysacchardies such as what? (5 things)
cellulose, hemicellulose, cutin, pectin, cell wall proteins
What are the 3 functions of a plant cell wall?
protect cell, physical support, water conservation
What are the layers of the plant cell wall? (4)
middle lamella, primary cell wall, secondary cell wall, plasma membrane
What enzyme can degrade cellulose?
Plant cell walls have pores. What are these important for? (2)
cell to cell transport and movement
Fungi cell walls contain what?
____________________ is a b-1
Name the enzyme that can degrade chitin.
What type of cell wall contains the following?
N-acetyl muramic acid
N-acetyl glucosamine (NAM-NAG)
NAM-NAG linkage can be degraded by _____________________ present in nasal secretions, tears, saliva
Instead of cell wall, what do animal cells have
extracellular matrix (ECM)
What is the extracellular matrix made up of?
glycoproteins and collagen fibers
What do glycoproteins do at the cell surface?
cell to cell signal transduction
Name the 3 types of animal cell junctions
tight, gap, desmosome
What type of junction is this?
2 cell membranes are fused by integral membrane proteins to prevent movement of any solutes through the space between
What type of junction is this?
Connections between 2 cells through connexons; channels through which chemical signals or solutes can pass from 1 cell to another
What type of junction is this?
Spots where 2 cells are connected together by keratin-like fibrous proteins; contains cytoplasmic protein plaques
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