56 terms

PEDS T1 Chpt 10 Health Promotion of the Infant and Family

STUDY
PLAY
How do infants biologically develop?
Cephalocaudalproximodistal Sequence
What does that ^^^ mean?
The grow from head to toe, center to periphery (how they obtain motor skills)
Infants shoud gain how much weight per week?
5-7 ounces
They should _____ their birth weight by 6 months.
double (Average = 16 lbs)
They will triple their birth weight by ....
1 year. (avg 21.5)
Breast-fed infants beyond 4-6 months ....
gain less weight.
Height increases by 1 inch per month for...
6 months
Growth is in _________ rather that a gradual pattern.
spurts
Resp rate slows in infants, goes from 35 to ___.
30
Why are infants predisposed to respiratory illness?
close proximity of trachea to the bronchi, short and straight eustachian tube, immunoglobulin A (IgA) is not produced
Heart rate slows:
Newborn: 100-180
1 week to 3 months: 100-220
3 months to 2 years: 80-150
They develop a _____ _________. HR increases with inspiration and decreases with expiration.
sinus arrhythmia
___ ________ is present the first 5 months causing physiologic anemia.
Fetal hemoglobin
Infant initially has mothers iron but it will diminish. Iron is need for...
Hgb formation
Digestive processes start at age...
3 months
Drooling is common because
swallowing reflex is not developed
Solid foods are
passes incompletely and not broken down well in feces
The liver conjugates _____ and secretes ____.
bilirubin, bile
The liver has a decreased capacity for ____________ and a high risk for _________.
gluconeogenesis, hypoglycemia
Thermoregulation gives infant ability to ______ and generate ____.
shiver, heat
Peripheral capillaries constrict in cold temperatures to conserve core body temp and avoid heat loss from _________.
evaporation
Infants gain insulation from...
increases adipose tissue
Infants ______ senses become the same as adults.
auditory
Visual accuity improves:
1 month: 20/120 (E on snellen chart)
4 months: 20/60
8 months: 20/30
Depth perception begins to develop by...
7-9 months and is fully mature by 2-3 years.
Fine motor development-
Grasping objects:
Hold bottle:
Transfer objects btwn hands:
Remove objects from container:
Build tower of 2 blocks:
2-3 months
6 months
7 months
10 months
11 months
12 months
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See page 326 for head control
Can roll over by...
5-6 months
Sit alone by...
7 months
Move from prone to sitting by...
10 months
Crawl by...
6-7 months
Creeping with belly off floor by...
9 months. Can also pull themselves up by holding onto furniture but cant get back down
Walk with assisstance by..
11 months. Walk alone by 12.
Erikson's psychosocial developement at 1 year:
Trust vs. Mistrust
What do infants trust?
their self, others, and the world; feeding, comfort, stimulation and caring needs; sense of self; physical comfort and security; feel empowered in unfamiliar and unknown situations
Mistrust is caused by...
failure to learn delayed gratification; too much or too little frustation; ability to control their environment- parents meet needs prior to infants signals, prolonged amount of time after infants signal leads to constant frustation causing them to mistrust others
Piagets Cognitive Development:
Sensorimotor phase
Imitation
Play
Affect
Reflex stage: birth - 1 month
sucking, rooting, grasping and crying
Primary circular reactions: 1-4 months
crying, nipple, parents voice
Secondary circular reactions: 4-8 months
shaking a rattle
Three achievements of cognitive development?
Separation- separate themselves from other obejcts and other people; Object permanence by 9-10 months; use of symbols
Development of body image: Realize that parts of their body are useful. Receive satisfaction when...
they smile and someone smiles back at them
First verbal communication =
crying
How lond do infants cry?
3 weeks: 1-1.5 hours a day
6 weeks: 2-4 hours a day
decreases at 12 weeks
By 1 year, they have ___-___ words with meaning. If this is delayed a _________ _________ should be completed.
3-5; hearing screening
When should solid foods be introduced?
4-6 months of age; infant cereal at 4-18 months; iron; introduce foods at intervals of 4-7 days to allow for identification of allergies; at 1 year can eat well cooked table food
How many teeth should infants have?
age of child in months - 6 = number of teeth they should have
Pertussis immunizations should be given to infants and adults. Added to _______.
tetanus
Varicella immunization should be give at ....
12-15 months, subcutaneous
An adverse reaction that can occur 2-23 days are a vaccination has been given:
Guillain-Barre
To ease pain of immunizations, be sure to use appropriate size needles. What can be given to reduce pain?
EMLA (lidocaine-prilocaine) 1 hour; Vapocoolant spray 15 seconds; Oral sucrose solution on pacifier for neonates
What is VAERS?
Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System - to report any adverse reactions after administration of any vaccine
Injury Prevention: Aspirtaion of foreign objects-
food (hot dogs, popcorn, candy, nuts, and grapes), baby powder
Other common causes of injury:
MVA (backing up in driveway, 1-9 years old), falls, poisoning, burns, drowning
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Slide 39 for Passenger Restraint Laws
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Table 10-2