9 months. Can also pull themselves up by holding onto furniture but cant get back down
Walk with assisstance by..
11 months. Walk alone by 12.
Erikson's psychosocial developement at 1 year:
Trust vs. Mistrust
What do infants trust?
their self, others, and the world; feeding, comfort, stimulation and caring needs; sense of self; physical comfort and security; feel empowered in unfamiliar and unknown situations
Mistrust is caused by...
failure to learn delayed gratification; too much or too little frustation; ability to control their environment- parents meet needs prior to infants signals, prolonged amount of time after infants signal leads to constant frustation causing them to mistrust others
Piagets Cognitive Development:
Sensorimotor phase Imitation Play Affect
Reflex stage: birth - 1 month
sucking, rooting, grasping and crying
Primary circular reactions: 1-4 months
crying, nipple, parents voice
Secondary circular reactions: 4-8 months
shaking a rattle
Three achievements of cognitive development?
Separation- separate themselves from other obejcts and other people; Object permanence by 9-10 months; use of symbols
Development of body image: Realize that parts of their body are useful. Receive satisfaction when...
they smile and someone smiles back at them
First verbal communication =
How lond do infants cry?
3 weeks: 1-1.5 hours a day 6 weeks: 2-4 hours a day decreases at 12 weeks
By 1 year, they have ___-___ words with meaning. If this is delayed a _________ _________ should be completed.
3-5; hearing screening
When should solid foods be introduced?
4-6 months of age; infant cereal at 4-18 months; iron; introduce foods at intervals of 4-7 days to allow for identification of allergies; at 1 year can eat well cooked table food
How many teeth should infants have?
age of child in months - 6 = number of teeth they should have
Pertussis immunizations should be given to infants and adults. Added to _______.
Varicella immunization should be give at ....
12-15 months, subcutaneous
An adverse reaction that can occur 2-23 days are a vaccination has been given:
To ease pain of immunizations, be sure to use appropriate size needles. What can be given to reduce pain?
EMLA (lidocaine-prilocaine) 1 hour; Vapocoolant spray 15 seconds; Oral sucrose solution on pacifier for neonates
What is VAERS?
Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System - to report any adverse reactions after administration of any vaccine
Injury Prevention: Aspirtaion of foreign objects-
food (hot dogs, popcorn, candy, nuts, and grapes), baby powder
Other common causes of injury:
MVA (backing up in driveway, 1-9 years old), falls, poisoning, burns, drowning