How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

56 terms

PEDS T1 Chpt 10 Health Promotion of the Infant and Family

How do infants biologically develop?
Cephalocaudalproximodistal Sequence
What does that ^^^ mean?
The grow from head to toe, center to periphery (how they obtain motor skills)
Infants shoud gain how much weight per week?
5-7 ounces
They should _____ their birth weight by 6 months.
double (Average = 16 lbs)
They will triple their birth weight by ....
1 year. (avg 21.5)
Breast-fed infants beyond 4-6 months ....
gain less weight.
Height increases by 1 inch per month for...
6 months
Growth is in _________ rather that a gradual pattern.
Resp rate slows in infants, goes from 35 to ___.
Why are infants predisposed to respiratory illness?
close proximity of trachea to the bronchi, short and straight eustachian tube, immunoglobulin A (IgA) is not produced
Heart rate slows:
Newborn: 100-180
1 week to 3 months: 100-220
3 months to 2 years: 80-150
They develop a _____ _________. HR increases with inspiration and decreases with expiration.
sinus arrhythmia
___ ________ is present the first 5 months causing physiologic anemia.
Fetal hemoglobin
Infant initially has mothers iron but it will diminish. Iron is need for...
Hgb formation
Digestive processes start at age...
3 months
Drooling is common because
swallowing reflex is not developed
Solid foods are
passes incompletely and not broken down well in feces
The liver conjugates _____ and secretes ____.
bilirubin, bile
The liver has a decreased capacity for ____________ and a high risk for _________.
gluconeogenesis, hypoglycemia
Thermoregulation gives infant ability to ______ and generate ____.
shiver, heat
Peripheral capillaries constrict in cold temperatures to conserve core body temp and avoid heat loss from _________.
Infants gain insulation from...
increases adipose tissue
Infants ______ senses become the same as adults.
Visual accuity improves:
1 month: 20/120 (E on snellen chart)
4 months: 20/60
8 months: 20/30
Depth perception begins to develop by...
7-9 months and is fully mature by 2-3 years.
Fine motor development-
Grasping objects:
Hold bottle:
Transfer objects btwn hands:
Remove objects from container:
Build tower of 2 blocks:
2-3 months
6 months
7 months
10 months
11 months
12 months
See page 326 for head control
Can roll over by...
5-6 months
Sit alone by...
7 months
Move from prone to sitting by...
10 months
Crawl by...
6-7 months
Creeping with belly off floor by...
9 months. Can also pull themselves up by holding onto furniture but cant get back down
Walk with assisstance by..
11 months. Walk alone by 12.
Erikson's psychosocial developement at 1 year:
Trust vs. Mistrust
What do infants trust?
their self, others, and the world; feeding, comfort, stimulation and caring needs; sense of self; physical comfort and security; feel empowered in unfamiliar and unknown situations
Mistrust is caused by...
failure to learn delayed gratification; too much or too little frustation; ability to control their environment- parents meet needs prior to infants signals, prolonged amount of time after infants signal leads to constant frustation causing them to mistrust others
Piagets Cognitive Development:
Sensorimotor phase
Reflex stage: birth - 1 month
sucking, rooting, grasping and crying
Primary circular reactions: 1-4 months
crying, nipple, parents voice
Secondary circular reactions: 4-8 months
shaking a rattle
Three achievements of cognitive development?
Separation- separate themselves from other obejcts and other people; Object permanence by 9-10 months; use of symbols
Development of body image: Realize that parts of their body are useful. Receive satisfaction when...
they smile and someone smiles back at them
First verbal communication =
How lond do infants cry?
3 weeks: 1-1.5 hours a day
6 weeks: 2-4 hours a day
decreases at 12 weeks
By 1 year, they have ___-___ words with meaning. If this is delayed a _________ _________ should be completed.
3-5; hearing screening
When should solid foods be introduced?
4-6 months of age; infant cereal at 4-18 months; iron; introduce foods at intervals of 4-7 days to allow for identification of allergies; at 1 year can eat well cooked table food
How many teeth should infants have?
age of child in months - 6 = number of teeth they should have
Pertussis immunizations should be given to infants and adults. Added to _______.
Varicella immunization should be give at ....
12-15 months, subcutaneous
An adverse reaction that can occur 2-23 days are a vaccination has been given:
To ease pain of immunizations, be sure to use appropriate size needles. What can be given to reduce pain?
EMLA (lidocaine-prilocaine) 1 hour; Vapocoolant spray 15 seconds; Oral sucrose solution on pacifier for neonates
What is VAERS?
Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System - to report any adverse reactions after administration of any vaccine
Injury Prevention: Aspirtaion of foreign objects-
food (hot dogs, popcorn, candy, nuts, and grapes), baby powder
Other common causes of injury:
MVA (backing up in driveway, 1-9 years old), falls, poisoning, burns, drowning
Slide 39 for Passenger Restraint Laws
Table 10-2