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130 terms

Ch. 21: Fungi

STUDY
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structure, methods of reproduction
Fungi are classified according to their ________ and ________
zygomycota
The common molds belong to the phylum ________.
zygospore
A resting spore that contains a zygote is called a ________.
Rhizopus stolonifer
The scientific name for black bread mold is ________ ________
rhizoids
Rootlike hypae in the bread mold are ________ .
stolons
Stem like hypae in bread mold are ________ .
Ascomycota
Sac fungi belong to the phylum ________ .
conidia
During asexual reproduction, sac fungi form tiny spores are called ________ .
yeast
The only unicellular fungi are ________ .
saccharomyces
The genus name for the yeast used backing is ________ .
alcholoic
Yeast grow rapidly by ________ fermentation.
co2, alcohol
Alcoholic fermentation produces ________ and ________ .
basidiomycota
The club fungi belong to the phylum ________ .
basidiumm
The spore-bearing structure of a club fungus is called ________ .
mushrooms
The most common club fungi are ________ .
secondary
The fruiting body of a mushroom is made of ________ mycelium.
piosonious
Many club fungi are ________.
Deuteromycota
The imperfect fungi belong to the phylum ________ .
sexual
Researchers have never observed ________ reproduction in deuteromycetes.
ascomycetes, zygomyocetes
Some imperfect fungi resemble ________ and ________ .
penicillum
The best known imperfect fungi is ________, which is used to produce antibiotics.
ascus
The phylum ascomycota is named for the ________, a reproductive structure that contains spores.
eukaryotic
Fungi are ________ heterotrophs that have cell walls
chitin
Their walls contain ________, a complex carbohydrate
multicellular
All fungi are ________ except yeast
hyphae
Fungi are made up of thin filaments called ________
one
Each hypahe is only ________ cell thick
cross walls
Some hyphae lack ________ and contain many nuclei
mycellium
The bodies of a muticellular fungi are composed of many hyphae tangled together into a thick mass called ________
mycelium
The ________ permits a large surface area to come in contact with the food source through which it grows
sexually and asexually
Many fungi reproduce ________ ___ ________
asexual
________ reproduction occurs when hyphae break off to grow on their own
sporangia
Some fungi produce spores, which scatter and grow in some fungi spores are produced in structures called ________
sporangiophores
Sporangia are at the tips of specialized hyphae called ________
sexual reproduction
________ incolves 2 mating types
hyphae
________ of oppostite mating types meet and fuse bringing "+" and "-" nuceli together in one cell
zygote
After growth and development, the nuclei forms a diploid nucleus
zygote
The zygote enter meiosis and produce haploid spores
spores
Zygote ________ are capable of growing into new organism
zygomycetes
Familiar molds that grow on meat, cheese, and bread are called ________
zygospore
Zygomycetes have a life cycle that includes a ________
zygospore
A ________ is a resting spore that contains zygotes fromed during the sexual phase of the mold's life cycle
black bread mold
The common name for rhizopus stoinifer is ________ ________ ________
gametangia
Hyphae from different mating types fuse and produce gamete-forming structures called ________
zygospores
Zygotes develop into thick-walled ________
Basidomycota
The phlyum of club fungi
reproduction
The phylum Basidomycota, or club fungi, gets its name from its clublike structure of a specialized ________
basidium
The spore-bearing structure is called ________
ascomycota
the phylum of sac fungi
sac funi
ex: cup fungus, morers, truffles, yeast
yeast
only unicelluar fungus
yeast
reproduce asexually by budding
co2 and alcohol
alcoholic fermentation produces ________ and ________
deutermycota
the phylum of the imperfect fungi
sexual phase
Imperfect fungi or deutermycota are fungi that cannot be placed in other phyla because researchers have never been able to observe a ________ ________ in their life cycle
penicillium
A well-known genera of the imperfect fungi
penicillin
Pencillium notatum is a mold that is the source of the antibiotic
230
The oldest known fungi are ________ million years old
saprobes
Many fungi are ________, which are organisms that obtain energy from decaying organic matter
parasites
Some are ________, which harm other organisms while living directly on or within them
symbionts
other fungi are ________ that live in close and mutally beneficial association with other species
decompose
the main role of fungi in natural ecosystems is to ________
lichen
symbiotic association between a fungua and a photosynthetic organism
chitin
the cell walls of fungi are made up of ________
absorbing food
fungi feed by ________ ________
parasites
Some fungi are ________, aborbing nutrience from other organisms
multicellular
except for yeast all fungi are ________
hyphae
fungi are made up of tiny filaments called ________
mycelium
the bodies of fungi are made up of many hyphae tangled together in mass called ________
fruiting bodies
the reproductive structures of a fungus is a ________ ________
ring
when new mushrooms sprout at the edges of mycelium a ________ is produced
hyphae
asexual reproduction occurs when ________ break off
spores
some fungi can also reproduce by scattering ________
sporangia
spores are produced in structures called ________
sporangiospore
specialized hyphae that hold sporangia are called ________
two different
fungi reproduce sexually when ____ ________ mating types come together
gametangium
When a plus and a minus mating type meet each hyphae forms a ________
zygotes
Two gametangia join to form a ________
rotting meat
Some fungi are specialized to attract animals and disperse their spores by smelling like ________ ________
eukaryotic
Which term describes the cell of fungi: prokaryotic, protistlike, eukaryotic, phototrophic
heterotrophic
Which terms best desribes how fungi obtain energy: phototrophic, chemotrophic, autotrophic, heterotrophic?
chitin
fungi have cell walls composed of ________
mycelium
The body of a multicellular fungus is composef of a mass of hyphae called a ________
sporangium
Structure in fungi that contains spores
ascus
reproductive structure in ascomycetes in which two nuclie of different mating types fuse
mycelium
many hyphae tangled together in a thick mass
fruiting bodies
structure of fungus that develops from a mycelium
sporangiophore
specialized hyphae where sporgangia are found
conidium
tiny fungal spore that forms at the tips of specialized hyphae in ascomycetes
fermentation
During the process of ________ energy is released
sporangia
________ are saclike structures that produce many spores
basidium
Club fungi produce spores on a sac called a ________
hyphae
Bread mold produces masses of threadlike structures called ________
budding
________ is a type of assexual reproduction in which an outgrowth from the parent organism forms a new organism
ascus
Sac fungi are fungi that produce spores inside an ________
budding
Yeast cells may reproduce by forming spores or by ________
absorption
A sporangium fungus obtains food by ________
mushrooms
Club fungi include puffballs, bracken fungi, and ________
spores and zygospores
Sporangium fungi reproduce by ________ and ________
chlorophyll
Unlike plants, a fungus does not have ________
molds
Which of the following helpful fungi is used to flavor cheese?
four
Each basidium will produce how many spores
gills
the basidia are found on what part of the mushroom?
mycelium
masses of hyphae are called ________
fermentation
Another name for anaerobic respiration in fungi is called
mycologist
A person who studies fungi is called a ________
chitin
the cell walls of fungi are made of ________
chitin
The cell walls of fungi are made up of a complex carbohydrate called ________
true
true or false? some fungi are parasites
yeast
which group of fungi are not multicellular?
hyphae
multicellular fungi that are composed of tiny filaments
one cell thick
how thick is each hyphae? ____ ____ _______
cross walls
IN some fungi, what divides the hyphae into cells containing one or two nuclei?
mycelium
many hyphae tangeled together that compose the bodies of multicellular fungi
false
true or false? most fungi can only reproduce sexually
sporangia
In some fungi, spores are produced in structures called ________
sporangiophore
Where are sporgangia found in a fungus? ________
mating types
sexual reproduction in fungi usually involved two different _________ _______
gametangia
structure that forms gametes
zygospore
The resting spores formed during the sexual phase of the mold's life cycle is called ________
black bread mold
What is the common name for rhizopus stolonifer?
rhizoids
rootlike hyphae that penetrate bread
stolons
stemlike hyphae that runs along the bread
sporgangium
hyphae that push up into air and form sporangia at their tips
gametangia
Two hyphae from different mating types come together, forming ________
zygospore
haploid gametes from the mating types fuse to form diploid zygotes which make up a single
meiosis
The zygospore eventually germinates, and ________ emerges
haploid spores
The sporangium reproduces asexually by releasing ________ ________
acus
structure formed within the fruiting body
ascomycota
The common yeast used for baking and brewking are memberss of the genus ________