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secondary recycling

materials re-used to make new products, lesser quality (rubber tires to carpet)

primary recycling

items re-cycled to make the same product (pop cans to pop cans)


a process that allows the organic material in solid waste to be decomposed and reintroduced into the soil, often as fertilizer.

sanitary landfill

a place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce emissions of gases and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires, and to discourage vermin


the liquid that percolates to the bottom of a landfill

Waste-To-Energy Programs

when the energy released from waste incineration is used to generate electricity

solid waste

can consist of hazardous waste, industrial solid waste, or municipal waste. Many types of solid waste provide a threat to human health and the environment

open-loop recycling

a recycling system in which a product made from one type of material is recycled into a different type of product (e.g., used newspapers into toilet paper)

closed-loop recycling

when materials, such as plastic or aluminum, are used to rebuild the same product; an example of this is the use of the aluminum from aluminum cans to produce more aluminum cans

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