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27 terms

Rayne's APES-Aquatic Ecology

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70-90% of world's reliable water by 2025
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70% of water withdrawn from rivers, lakes and aquifers is not returned
what is the biggest user of water?
irrigation
what is the second biggest user of water?
industry (20%)
what is the third biggest user of water?
cities and residence (10%)
where does most of the world's photosynthesis take place?
0-200 meters below the surface, 40% low nutrient level, high dissolved oxygen
Thermal Stratification
temperature differences in deep lakes with warm summers and cold winters
overturn
equalizes temperature at all depths (spring and fall) also brings oxygen to the bottom and nutrients to the top
thermocline
middle layer of water that acts as a barrier to the transfer of nutrients and dissolved oxygen; results in a loss of oxygen at lower levels and a loss of nutrients at upper levels
Inland wetlands:
act as natural sponges and absorb excess water and wildlife habitats; filter and degrade pollutants, reduce flooding and erosion, replenish stream flows, recharge ground aquifers, provide economic resources and recreation
marshes
temporarily flooded, often silty land next to a river or lake
swamps
lowland region permanently covered with water
hardwood bottom land forest
an area by a river or stream where lots of hardwoods grow (oaks)
estuary
where freshwater and saltwater meet, partly surrounded by land with access to open ocean and a large supply of freshwater from a river
salinity
salt level of the water that fluctuates with tidal cycles, time of year, and precipitation
estuary fertility/productivity
most fertile ecosystem in the world and most productive; nutrients from land to river are transported to the estuary, tidal action circulates nutrients and removes waste, lost of light, plants provide photosynthetic carpet
salt marshes
ground is saturated and there is little oxygen (decay takes place slowly) , lots of invertebrates and is the breeding ground for some ocean animals and has a surface inlet and outlet
mangrove forests
located on tropical coasts where there is too much silt for coral reefs, dominated by mangrove trees (salt tolerant trees, 55 species), protects the coastline from erosion and acts as a nursery for some 2000 species of plants, invertebrates, and fish
sea grass beds
flowering plants that have adapted to complete submersion in salty water found in quiet, shallow, temperate,tropical and subtropical water, up to depths of 10m if the can photosynthesize
ecological importance of sea beds
reduce surface erosion, provide food and habitats
Ogallala Aquifer
world's largest known aquifer, 1/4 depleted by 2020
overfishing
75% of world's commercially valuable fish are over fished or close to sustainable limits, needlessly throwaway 30% of catch
Individual Transfer Rights (ITR)
gov't gives private owners a % of the TAC (total allowable catch)
problems with ITR
Essentially transfers ownership of public waters to private owners; Smaller companies with less capital can be pushed out of the marketplace; TACs can be set too high to prevent overfishing
Gravity flow irrigation
60-80% effective water reaches plant roots and is taken up by plants
center pivot/ low pressure sprinkler
80% effective, more with LEPA sprinkler
drip/trickle (micro-irrigation)
90-95% effective, expensive to install, most effective and best at reducing water waste