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where does most of the world's photosynthesis take place?
0-200 meters below the surface, 40% low nutrient level, high dissolved oxygen
equalizes temperature at all depths (spring and fall) also brings oxygen to the bottom and nutrients to the top
middle layer of water that acts as a barrier to the transfer of nutrients and dissolved oxygen; results in a loss of oxygen at lower levels and a loss of nutrients at upper levels
act as natural sponges and absorb excess water and wildlife habitats; filter and degrade pollutants, reduce flooding and erosion, replenish stream flows, recharge ground aquifers, provide economic resources and recreation
where freshwater and saltwater meet, partly surrounded by land with access to open ocean and a large supply of freshwater from a river
most fertile ecosystem in the world and most productive; nutrients from land to river are transported to the estuary, tidal action circulates nutrients and removes waste, lost of light, plants provide photosynthetic carpet
ground is saturated and there is little oxygen (decay takes place slowly) , lots of invertebrates and is the breeding ground for some ocean animals and has a surface inlet and outlet
located on tropical coasts where there is too much silt for coral reefs, dominated by mangrove trees (salt tolerant trees, 55 species), protects the coastline from erosion and acts as a nursery for some 2000 species of plants, invertebrates, and fish
sea grass beds
flowering plants that have adapted to complete submersion in salty water found in quiet, shallow, temperate,tropical and subtropical water, up to depths of 10m if the can photosynthesize
75% of world's commercially valuable fish are over fished or close to sustainable limits, needlessly throwaway 30% of catch
problems with ITR
Essentially transfers ownership of public waters to private owners; Smaller companies with less capital can be pushed out of the marketplace; TACs can be set too high to prevent overfishing
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