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refers to the occurrence in a community or region go cases of illness specific health related behavior or other health related events clearly in excess of normal expectancy.


occurring worldwide or over a very wide area crossing international boundaries and usually affecting a large number of people


concerned with distribution and determinants of health and disease and morbidity in populations.


is all the inhabitants of a given country or area considered together.


implies that the occurrence of diseases and other health outcomes varies in population with some subgroup of the population more frequently affected than others.


any factor that brings CHANGE in a health condition or other defined characteristics.


which pertain either to contact with a disease-causing factor or to the amount of that impinges upon a group or individuals.


all the possible results that may stem from exposure to a causal factor.


illness due to a specific disease or health condition


causes death.

natural history of disease

refers to the course of disease from its beginning to its final clinical endpoints.

primary prevention

involves the prevention of disease before it occurs.


takes place during the early phases of pathogenesis includes activities that limit the progression of disease.


directed toward the later stages of pathogenesis includes programs for restoring the patient's optimal functioning.


refers to counting of the cases of illness or other health outcomes.

observational science

that capitalizes upon naturally occurring situations in order to study the occurrence of disease.


refers to epidemiologic studies that are concerned characterizing the amount of distribution of health and disease within a population.


suggested that environmental factors such as water quality and the air implicated in the causation of diseases.

middle ages

black death was thought to be an epidemic of bubonic plague a bacterial disease caused by yersinia petis.


was one of the founders of the field toxicology

bernardino Ramazzini

founder of the field occupational medicine. also considered to be a pioneer in the field of ergonomics by pointing out the hazards associated with postures assumed in various occupations.

Sir Percival Pott

surgeon is thought to be the first individual to describe an environmental cause of cancer.

Edward Jenner

findings regarding the development of a vaccine that provided immunity to smallpox were published.


the probability that an event will occur an individaul will become ill or die within a stated period time or by a certain age.

risk factor

is an exposure that is associated with a disease morbidity or morality or adverse health outcomes.


of ration in which the numerator is part of the denominator proportion may be expressed percentages.


differs from proportions because the denominator involves a measure of time.


refers to the occurrence of new disease or mortality within a defined period of observation

incidence rate

denotes the rate formed by dividing number or NEW CASES that occur during a time period by the number of INDIVIDUALS in the population at risk.

incidence rate math prob.

number of new cases/total population at risk x 100,000


refers to the number of existing cases of a disease or health condition or deaths in a population at some designated time.

point prevalence

refers to all cases of a disease health condition or death that exist at a particular point in time relative to a specific population from which the cases are derived.

period prevalence

refers to all cases of disease within a period of time

lifetime prevalence

denotes cases diagnose at any time during the person's lifetime.

point of prevalence math prob.

point of prevalence= number of person ill/ total number in the group. (at a point in time)

Rate calculation (crude death rate)

number of deaths in a given year divide by reference population (during midpoint of the year) X 100,000

Age specific rate

number of deaths among those aged 15-24/ number of person who are aged 15-24 during period of time X 100,000

representativeness aka external validity

refers to the generalizability of the findings to the population from which the data have been taken.

vital events

are deaths, births, marriages, divorces, and fetal deaths

public health surveillance

refers to the systematic and continuous gathering of information about the occurrence of disease and other health phenomena

syndromic surveillance

using health related data that precede diagnosis and signal a sufficient probability of a case or an outbreak to warrant further public health response.


is a centralized database for collection of information about a disease.


refers the document that is used to collect information.

maternal morality

encompasses maternal death that result from causes associated with pregnancy.

life expectancy

refers to the number of years that a person is expected to live at any particular year.

mortality rate

number of deaths assigned to causes related to childbirth/ number of live births X 100,000

infant mortality rate

defined as the number of infant deaths among infants aged zero to 365 days during a year divided by the number of live births during the same year

fetal morality

number of fetal morality after 20 weeks or more gestation/ number of live births + number or fetal deaths after 20 weeks or more gestation. X 1000

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