64 terms

Global Studies Final

STUDY
PLAY
Discipline
Instruction, field of learning
Anthropology
Study of the origin, behavior, and culture of human beings
Archaeology
study of artifacts and relics of early mankind
Political Science
the study of government, power, and politics
Geography
The study of the physical features of the earth and its atmosphere, and of human activity as it affects and is affected by these, including the distribution of populations and resources, land use, and industries.
Sociology
The study of how people interact
Artifact
Any object made by humans, especially those from an earlier time, such as those excavated by archaeologists
Primary Source
An original document containing the observations, ideas, and conclusions of an individual. It is a firsthand account presented by someone present or actively participating in the event. Examples include manuscripts, photographs, oral histories, and personal journals.
Secondary Source
A secondhand account of an event or a retelling of another person's observations written by someone who did not witness or actually participate in the events. Includes sources that combine, synthesize, and or interpret information from primary sources. Examples include encyclopedias, textbooks, and reviews.
Lucy
3.2 million year old hominid discovered in Ethiopia, was the first nearly complete skeleton found.
Society
A community of people who share a common culture
5 themes of geography
Location, Place, Interaction, Movement, Region
Relative location
The position of a place in relation to another place
Absolute location
Exact location of a place on the earth described by global coordinates
Longitude
Distance east or west of the prime meridian, measured in degrees
Latitude
The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator.
Equator
An imaginary circle around the middle of the earth, halfway between the North Pole and the South Pole
Prime Meridian
0 degrees longitude - runs from North to South poles
Human features
Man made features (Statue of Liberty, The White House).
Physical features
Geographic features you can see (rivers, lakes, mountains, desert, etc)
Cultural Relativity
The idea that behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs
Ethnocentrism
The belief that one's group is of central importance, tendency to judge the practices of other groups by one's own cultural standards.
Xenophobia
A fear or hatred of foreigners or strangers
Imperialism
A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
Colony
A country or area under the full or partial political control of another country, typically a distant one, and occupied by settlers from that country.
Aztec
(1200-1521) 1300, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor. The arrival of Hernando Cortez and the Spanish Conquistadores ended their empire.
Incan Empire
A Mesoamerican civilization in the Andes Mountains in South America that by the end of the 1400s was the largest empire in the Americas including much of what is now Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile; conquered by Pizarro
Maya
Mesoamerican civilization concentrated in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula and in Guatemala and Honduras but never unified into a single empire. Major contributions were in mathematics, astronomy, and development of the calendar.
Hyperinflation
A period of very rapid increases in the overall price of goods.
Free Market Economy
An economic system in which there is free competition and prices are determined by the interaction of supply and demand
Command Economy
An economic system in which the government makes all economic decisions.
Triangle Trade
The extensive exchange of slaves, sugar, cotton, and furs between Europe, Africa, and the Americas that transformed economic, political, and social life on both sides of the Atlantic
Ethnicity
A social division based on national origin, religion, language, and often race.
Diversity
Differences in characteristics of people; can involve personality, work style, race, age, ethnicity, gender, religion, education, functional level at work, etc.
Genocide
Deliberate extermination of a racial or cultural group
Rwanda Genocide
April 1994-Early July 1994; Belgain and German colonizers come, give power to Tutsis who discriminate against Hutus; after colonizers leave, Hutus gain power and slaughter all Tutsis and moderate Hutus; 900,000 killed in three months; international community did nothing
Executive Order
A rule issued by the president that has the force of law
Visa
Legal permission to work and reside in a country for a limited period of time
Refugee
A person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster
Monotheism
The belief in one God
Polytheism
The belief in many gods
Atheism
Belief that there is no god.
Confucianism
Chinese belief system from 500s BCE that emphasized family loyalty, respecting elders, education, obedience, and ancestors.
Islam
A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.
Buddhism
Belief system that started in India in the 500s BC. Happiness can be achieved through removal of one's desires. Believers seek enlightenment and the overcoming of suffering.
Sikhism
A 14th Century religion founded by a Hindu guru, Nanak Saddartha. Sikhs (means "learner") are monotheists that follow a religion that has elements of both Hinduism and Islam. Most Sikhs are found in India.
Hinduism
A religion native to India, featuring belief in many gods and reincarnation
India Caste System
Social structure. Four well known categories: Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Sudras. People were born into a "caste" and could not move to a different societal level.
Brahmin
They were Hindi priests, and the most respected of the four main social groups of the caste system.
Khsatriyas
Governing and warrior caste
Vaishya
The third Hindu Caste, that of the three merchants, traders, farmers, and craftsmen.
Sudra
Caste that made up most of the Indian population; most were peasants and manual laborers; they had limited rights in society
Dalit
"The Untouchables" - Had to do lowest tasks like cleaning the streets, etc. So ritually impure that standing in one's shadow was considered impure.
Dharma
In Hinduism, the laws and duties that guide the behavior of each caste member.
Karma
The belief that actions in this life, whether good or bad, will decide your place in the next life.
Reincarnation
Belief that the individual soul is reborn in a different form after death
Overpopulation
The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Overcrowding
The effect of having too many people living in a small area
Population density
A measurement of the number of persons per unit land area.
Manners
Social behavior
Matriarchy
A society where the mother is the head of the family and descent is traced through the mother's side of the family
Patriarchy
A form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line
Matrilineal
A social system in which family descent and inheritance rights are traced through the mother
Patrilineal
A social system in which family descent and inheritance rights are traced through the father