Religion Test 3
Terms in this set (47)
A mythological axis of the world often represented by a pole, tree, or mountain connecting the earth with the sky and underworld
A sacred time when everything that exists today was created
Means time now and always in Latin. lt also represents the atemporal telling of dreams
Was a gate, or opening to superhuman power and knowledge [was an important ancient Greek religious sanctuary sacred to the god Apollo]
High Priestess of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi
A piece of land marked off from common uses and dedicated to a god
(Breaking or destroying images, especially those set up for religious veneration.)
Literally refers to breaking images, in religious studies usually refers to movements opposed to the use of images in worship
A term used by Paul Tillich to refer to the tendency of religion to invest material things such as statues, images and locations with the quality of being sacred
a term used by Paul Tillich to refer to a religious tendency to sharply distinguish the sacred from any identifications with material things and images
A Buddhist shrine usually shaped something like an inverted bell with a long handle.
Are structure that marks a burial place of importance [a place regarded as holy because of its associations with a divinity or a sacred person or relic, typically marked by a building or other construction]
Is a building that houses images and statues of gods and goddesses
Are Christian churches that contain cathedra or throne of a bishop
Are rectangular with a large room where people can gather
Sacred sounds chanted for the purpose of meditation and prayer
Explain how sacred space establishes an axis mundi. Illustrate your answer by reference to either the temple of Apollo at Delphi, the Parthenon of Athena in Athens, or Canterbury Cathedral in England.
People created sacred places for a variety of purposes, such as to pray, conduct rituals, bury the dead, house the gods, and store sacred objects. One of the most places of divination in the ancient world was located in Delphi. It's located on a sacred mountain overlooking a vast valley with a grand view of the ocean, one glance tells you that this is indeed a special place. Delphi marks the center of the earth around which everything is oriented and place where earth and heaven were once connected.
How do festivals and seasonal rituals create sacred time? What kinds of times are frequently marked as sacred?
Seasonal celebration reclaims the past for the present, and the rites of passage marked human development. Religion locates people in time and space and makes time meaningful. They also provide maps and timelines that help people negotiate life. Akitu, Passover, and Christmas are times that are marked as sacred.
How are music and visual art used to create a sense of sacred space?
[Music makes present what is absent and creates moods of exaltation. The start of music marks the beginning of sacred time. The ending of music marks the close of sacred time. Music also enhances devotion. Art like religion, they use symbols, signs, and codes to convey meaning emotional response. Without the arts, our sense of sacred would be greatly diminished.]
Describe the three major types of sacred architecture, and explain how each reflects the tension between the presence and the absence of super-human powers.
The three types of sacred architectures are Shrines, Temples, and congregational structures. Shirnes are not buildings intended to house people but, simple memorials such as a cross. Temples are the homes of the gods, and the present attend the sacred images house there just like royalty. Congregational structures house people for worshiping instead of housing gods and goddesses.
A forty-year-old Arab [is held by Muslims to be the chief prophet of God]
"The Night of Power and Excellence"
The night when the recreation started
A book that Muhammad's revelations were written down in
Five Pillars of Islam
The core of Muslim faith and practices consisting of five things
The name of a mystical movement within Islam
A Meccan shrine once central to pre-Islamic Arab polytheism
People who believe they have been given a divine message along with the assignment of getting others to believe that message
People who have significant religious experience and see their mission as teaching others how to have those experience for themselves
Those experience in which individuals enter altered states of consciousness when they may be overwhelmed by intense feelings of joy, raptures, and trance states
A son of a king living in northern India (Gautama, was an ascetic and sage, on whose teachings of Buddhism was founded)
An illustrious host of enlightened beings
A title for any person who has taken a cow to become enlighten and lives a life of compassion intent on gaining enlightenment for himself/herself and all others as well
Four Noble Truths
The core of Buddhist teaching consisting four things
The Buddhist middle way leading to nirvana, consisting of right understanding, right thought, right speech, right action, right occupation, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration
The word means action and often refers to the law of action, namily that every action produces a result that ultimately determines a persons rebirth
Is a departure from the Hindu belief in atman "the self"
Mysterium tremendum et fascinans
Fearful and fascinating mystery
The unity of all things is apprehended behind the multiplicity of the world
All sensate and conceptual content disappears, and the mystic experiences a state of pure consciousness
(Becoming one with God)
The experience of the mystic's ego or self-expanding to include the whole universe or dissolving into nature so that "without and within are one"
"Soul" is same introversive type
Involves an ecstasy of union, but not identify, with divine
A Sanskrit word referring to different kinds of spiritual disciplines an paths
Primary model or type
How was Muhammad's experience of the sacred different from that of the Buddha? What can we learn about sacred experience by comparing these two experiences?
Muhammad's first experience of revelations from the angel appear far removed from the enlightenment experience of Shakyamuni. The buddha receives no divine command to write down the final revelation from divine. Muhammad realizes that his prophetic task is to get others to believe his revelations and are true. Buddha realizes that his prophetic task is to get others to follow a path that will lead them to enlightenment. These experience attributed to religious founders becoming models for subsequent experience which are to be judged. They are presented as if they were foundational experience.
Compare the Five Pillars of Islam with the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism. What, in your opinion, is the most significant difference between them? Why do you think the difference is significant?
1. Witness that there is no God but Allah and that Muhammad in his prophet.
2. Perform mandatory prayers five times a day.
3. Give alms to the poor.
4. Fast from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan.
5. At least once during life make a pilgrimage to Mecca.
1. There is suffering
2. The cause of suffering is desire
3. There is a way to overcome desire and become free from suffering
4. The eightfold path leads to freedom and suffering
What is Rudolph Otto's definition of religion and how does it explain the phenomenon of religious experience? How does Friedrich Schleiermacher's definition differ from Otto's? Does Schleiermacher's definition offer a better explanation of religious experience than Otto's?
He thought that the divine could only be inferred as the cause of feeling of absolute dependence. Like Schleiermacher he thought there was a distinctive religious feeling; however, he made it to subjective. He called religious experience "numinous experience" and characterized them as experience of the holy.