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37 terms

BIO 122 Mini exam 1

STUDY
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Which group was not described in Woese's tree of life analysis?
Archaea
Prokarya
Eukarya
Bacteria
Prokarya
What characteristics were used to classify organisms before Woese's tree of life analysis?

Presence of a membrane-bound nucleus
Composition of the cell wall
Number of cells in the organism
Differences in ribosomal RNA sequences
Presence of a membrane bound nucleus
True or false? Data showing that the Bacteria were the first lineage to diverge from the common ancestor of all living organisms suggest that the Archaea and Eukarya are more closely related to each other than they are to the Bacteria.
True
Which of the following statements about phylogenetic trees is true?

A paraphyletic group consists of an ancestral population and all of its descendants.
A paraphyletic group consists of a common ancestor and some of its descendants.
A paraphyletic group has not experienced lateral gene transfer.
A monophyletic group consists of a common ancestor and some of its descendants.
A paraphyletic group consists of a common ancestor and some of its descendants.
Which molecule did Carl Woese study to produce his tree of life?
Ribosomal RNA
DNA
Messenger RNA
Ribosome
Ribosomal RNA
What is lateral gene transfer?
Physical transfer of a gene from a species in one lineage to a species in another lineage.
Inheritance of a gene through mitosis
Inheritance of a gene from a parent
Inheritance of a gene through meiosis
Physical transfer of a gene from a species in one lineage to a species in another lineage.
Gram-positive bacteria characteristics include...
Appear purple after Gram staining, alcohol rinse does not remove crystal violet, have a thick peptidoglycan layer
Gram-negative bacteria characteristics include...
Have an outer membrane as part of their cell wall structure, alcohol rinse easily removes crystal violet, have a thin peptidoglycan layer, appear pink after Gram staining.
Require energy only from inorganic sources...
autotrophs
Require energy from at least one organic nutrient....
heterotrophs
The prokaryotic cells that built stromatolites are classified as _____.
proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria
cyanobacteria
cyanobacteria
The prokaryotic cells that were the first to add significant quantities of oxygen to Earth's atmosphere are classified as _____.
proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria
cyanobacteria
cyanobacteria
Streptococcus aureus is classified with _____.
proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria
cyanobacteria
gram-positive bacteria
Organisms that can cause nongonococcal urethritis are classified with _____.
proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria
cyanobacteria
chlamydias
The chemoheterotroph Proteus vulgaris is a rod-shaped bacterium classified with _____.
proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria
cyanobacteria
proteobacteria
Spiral-shaped bacteria are likely to be placed with _____.
proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria
cyanobacteria
spirochetes
According to this phylogenetic tree, which of these pairs of prokaryotic subgroups share the most recent common ancestor?

Euryarchaeota ... Cyanobacteria
Proteobacteria ... Crenarchaeota
Proteobacteria ... Euryarchaeota
Euryarchaeota ... Crenarchaeota
Crenarchaeota ... Cyanobacteria
Euryarchaeota ... Crenarchaeota
What advantage do organisms that reproduce sexually have over organisms that reproduce asexually?
Their offspring may have more mutations.
Their offspring are bigger and better able to reproduce.
Their offspring may be more adaptable to changes in the environment.
Their offspring can exist in both haploid and diploid stages.
Their offspring may be more adaptable to changes in the environment.
Which term describes the fusion of two gametes to form a diploid zygote?
Syngamy
Mitosis
Alternation of generations
Meiosis
Syngamy
Which term describes the multicellular haploid form of a protist that shows alternation of generations?
Gametophyte
Zygote
Sporophyte
Spore
Gametophyte
Which structure mediates the attachment of spores to a surface on which to grow?

Holdfast
Flagella
Sporophyte
Chloroplast
Holdfast
Which of the following statements about Ulva's haploid stage is true?
Gametes of the same mating type fuse to produce a diploid zygote.
Haploid cells produce gametes by meiosis.
The haploid Ulva cells are genetically identical to their diploid parents.
Haploid cells are produced by meiosis of diploid cells.
Haploid cells are produced from meiosis of diploid cells.
How does the haploid form of Ulva "switch" to its diploid form?
Gametophytes produce cells that undergo meiosis and produce spores that germinate into diploid adults.
Sporophytes undergo meiosis to produce spores that germinate into diploid adults.
Sporophytes produce cells that undergo mitosis to produce gametes that fuse to form a zygote.
Gametophytes produce cells that undergo mitosis to produce gametes that fuse to form a zygote.
Gametophytes produce cells that undergo mitosis to produce gametes that fuse to form a zygote.
True or false? Organisms that exhibit alternation of generations reproduce sexually in the diploid stage.
False.
Angiosperms are most closely related to _____.

green algae
gymnosperms
bryophytes
charophyceans
seedless vascular plants
gymnosperms
Which of these was the dominant plant group at the time that dinosaurs were the dominant animals?
gymnosperms
bryophytes
seedless vascular plants
angiosperms
charophyceans
gymnosperms
This is an image of a(n) _____.
seedless vascular plant
angiosperm
bryophyte
gymnosperm
charophycean
charophycean
Plants evolved from green algae approximately _____ million years ago.

3,500
475
2,200
130
400
475
_____ are an example of seedless vascular plants.
Pine trees
Mosses
Ferns
Charophyceans
Lilacs
Ferns
The living plants that are most similar to the first plants to bear gametangia are the _____.
bryophytes
charophyceans
seedless vascular plants
gymnosperms
angiosperms
bryophytes
Which of these is a male gametophyte?
Pollen grains
In pines, the female gametophyte contains _____, each of which contains a(n) _____.
antheridia ... egg
archegonia ... sperm cell
antheridia ... sperm cell
microsporangia ... egg cell
archegonia ... egg
archegonia ... egg
In pines, an embryo is a(n) _____.
immature female gametophyte
food reserve for the immature sporophyte
immature sporophyte
seed
immature male gametophyte
immature sporophyte
In pine trees, pollen grains get to the ovule via the _____.
megaspore
integument
pollen cone
eggs
micropyle
micropyle
Which of these statements is true about the gametophyte tissue that surrounds the pine embryo?
It functions as a haploid food reserve.
It functions as a diploid food reserve.
It develops from the fusion of a microspore and a megaspore.
It functions as a triploid food reserve.
It is the remnant of the pollen tube.
It functions as a haploid food reserve.
Of the four haploid cells produced by a pine cone's megasporocyte (megaspore mother cell), _____ survive(s).
one
In the pine, microsporangia form _____ microspores by _____.

haploid ... meiosis
diploid ... mitosis
diploid ... meiosis
haploid ... mitosis
triploid ... fertilization
haploid...meiosis