Term VI Pharm ch 4
Terms in this set (53)
what is the function of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)?
- regulates blood pressure, heart rate, GI tract motility, salivation, and bronchial smooth muscle tone
"automatic" (involuntary) responses
what does the ANS require in order for the organs to function?
they release chemicals to send messages to the organ
what are the 2 division of the ANS
- parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (PANS)
- sympathetic autonomic nervous system (SANS)
what is known as "rest and digest"
what is known as "fight or flight"
ANS basic anatomy:
where does the preganglionic neuron originate from?
the central nervous system (brain/ spinal cord)
what is the space between the preganglionic and postganglionic fibers called
synapse or synaptic cleft
where does the postganglionic neuron originate from and what does it innervate
-in the ganglia
- innervates the effector organ or tissue
where do the preganglionic fibers originate from in the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system?
cranial nerves III, VII, IX, X and sacral 2 to 4 of the spinal cord
are the preganglionic fibers in the PANS long or short?
are the postganglionic fibers in the PANS long or short? where does it terminate
short; on the innervated tissue
where do the preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic autonomic nervous system originate from?
thoracic T1 to lumbar L2 of the spinal cord
are the preganglionic fibers in the SANS short or long
True or False:
The postganglionic fibers in the SANS are LONG
in the SANS, epinephrine and a small amt of norepinephrine is released into the systemic circulation via ______ _______
the SANS stimulates the radial smooth muscles. what does it do to the pupil size and heart rate?
- myDriasis ( Dilates the pupils) and increases heart rate
the PANS stimulates the circular smooth muscles. what does it do to the pupil size and heart rate?
- miOsis ( cOnstricts the pupils) and decreases heart rate
True or False:
Almost all body tissues are innervated by the ANS
in the PANS, the neurotransmitter released from the postganglionic nerve terminal is ______. it is also termed _______
in the SANS, the neurotransmitter released by the postganglionic nerves is ______ and is termed _____
what is the enzyme that hydrolyzes Ach into inactive metabolites choline and acetic acid?
what are cholinergic effect?
What happens at higher doses of cholinergic drugs?
what will happen at higher than toxic levels of cholinergic drugs
What do cholinergic drugs treat?
- urinary retention
what is the drug to treat xerostomia?
what drug treats urinary retention
what drug treats glaucoma
what are cholinergic drug contraindications
- bronchial asthma
- GI or urinary tract obstruction
- severe cardiac disease
- peptic ulcer
What are the effects of anticholinergic drugs?
- Blurred vision/ bladder retention
- Dry mouth
what are the effects of anticholinergic drugs
- CNS stimulation or depression ( depends on dose)
- reduce flow of exocrine glands
- relax smooth muscles
- Mydriasis (dilate pupils)
- tachycardia ( large dose) bradycardia (small dose)
what are contraindications for anticholinergic drugs
- narrow- angle glaucoma
- prostatic hypertrophy
- GI obstruction
what is the main neurotransmitter for SANS
also epinephrine and dopamine in small amts
what happens when alpha receptors are stimulated
what happens when beta 1 receptors are stimulated
increase heart rate
what happens when beta 2 receptors are stimulated
for a patient who has high blood pressure and asthma, would you want to give them a drug that stimulates beta 1, or beta 2?
what does norephinephrine consists of, more alpha or beta receptors?
primarily alpha (causes vasoconstriction)
what receptors does epinephrine have
half alpha and half beta
what are pharmacologic effects of adrenergic drugs
- CNS excitation/ alertness
- increase blood pressure
- vasodilation of skeletal muscle/ lung
what are pharmacologic effects of adrenergic drugs in the eye
- decreased intraocular pressure
- mydriasis (dilate pupils)
what are the effects on the respiratory system with adrenergic drugs
relaxation for bronchioles
what are the metabolic effects of adrenergic drugs
increase blood sugar bc you need energy to fight/ flight
what are the effects on salivary glands with adrenergic drugs
submaxillary and sublingual gland stimulated producing small amt of thick, viscous saliva. can lead to xerostomia
what are contraindications for adrenergic drugs
- uncontrolled hypertension
what adrenergic drug is used for the treatment of shock
what adrenergic drug is sued for the treatment of asthma or emphysema
albuterol (Proventil/ Ventolin)
what conditions would be treated with alpha adrenergic blocking drugs
- prostatic hypertrophy
- Raynaud's syndrome
- vascular spasms
name a drug that is both an alpha and beta blocker used for the treatment of hypertension
name a nonspecific beta adrenergic blocking drug
name a specific (selective) beta adrenergic blocking drug
what is the drug of choice for a patient who has high blood pressure and asthma
beta blockers treat all of the following except:
HBP, arrhythmias, angina, hyperthyroid, MI, glaucoma, migraines.
NOne. beta blockers treat all of that.
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