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POL SCI 1 Midterm 1 Key Concepts
Terms in this set (99)
Rules and procedures that structure political competition such as the constitution. Shapes outcomes, such as the process through which a bill becomes a law.
Goal oriented actors whose primary goal is getting elected by considering the effect of their actions on staying in office , and recognizing the need to bargain and compromise with others.
A situation in which two (or more)actors cannot agree to cooperate for fear that the other will find its interests best served by reneging on an agreement.
A problem which everyone benefits from working together and deciding on an outcome.
Collective good (or public good)
goods that are collectively produced and freely available for anyone's consumption.
Free rider problem (or collective action problem)
A situation in which individuals can receive the benefits from a collective activity whether or not they helped to pay for it, leaving them with no incentive to contribute.
private goods or benefits that induce rational actors to participate in a collective effort to provide a collective good.
The difference between what a person ideally would prefer and what the group with which that person makes collective decisions actually does. Individuals pay this whenever collective decisions produce policy outcomes that do not best serve their interests.
The costs of doing political business reflected in the time and effort required to compare preferences and negotiate compromises in making collective decisions.
Passed by the british parliament that required them to pay a tax on every piece of printed paper they used; ships papers, legal documents, licences, newspapers even playing cards. Was viewed as a direct attempt by England to raise money in the colonies without the approval of the colonial legislatures.
power given by a state to a locality to enact legislation and manage its own affairs locally. Applies to Britain's administration of the American colonies.
Boycott of British Goods
Colonies resisted the british's attempts to tax them by boycotting in order to send a message. The boston tea party occurred shortly after Britain passed a tax on tea.
A convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies that became the governing body of the United States during the American Revolution. The result was the assertion of home rule, Boycott British trade until it rescinds taxes and regulations (includes nearly full set of colonies).
The second time in 1775 resulted in the Declaration of Independence, declaring selves "free and independent states" and they drafted articles of confederation.
Articles of Confederation
The compact among the thirteen original states that formed the basis of the first national government of the United States from 1777 to 1789, when it was supplanted by the Constitution.
Uprising of 1786 led by Daniel Shays, a former captain in the Continental army and a bankrupt Massachusetts farmer, to protest the state's high taxes and aggressive debt collection policies. The rebellion demonstrated a fundamental weakness of the Articles of Confederation--its inability to keep the peace--and stimulated interest in strengthening the national government, leading to the Philadelphia convention that framed the Constitution.
Constitutional blueprint drafted by James Madison that sought to reform the Articles of Confederation. Introduced at the Constitutional Convention (1787), the plan proposed a tripartite national government, but unlike the subsequent Constitution, it provided for a popularly elected legislature that would dominate national policymaking. Moreover, the national government would possess the authority to veto any state laws.
Participated in the continental congress and was a leader in the Virginia assembly. When they were developing the constitution proposed the Virginia plan which suggested a bicameral legislator where the number of representatives is based on the population of a state.
His goals were to strengthen national government vs. states, give large states more power than under articles, and insulating government from popular passions.
New Jersey Plan
William Patterson's proposal for reforming the Articles of Confederation. Introduced at the Constitutional Convention (1787), this was favored by delegates who supported states' rights.
Proposed a bicameral legislator where one body in which the number of representatives is chosen by population, directly elected and only serve two year terms (house). In the second body the representatives would only be two per state no matter the size, and they would be represented by the state legislatures and serve six year terms (senate).
The result of legislative vote trading. For example, legislators representing urban districts may vote for an agricultural bill provided that legislators from rural districts vote for a mass transit bill.
A clause in Article VI of the Constitution declaring that national laws are the "supreme" law of the land and therefore take precedence over any laws adopted by the state or localities.
The explicit powers given to Congress by the Constitutional in Article I, Section 8. These include the powers of taxation, coinage of money, regulation of commerce, and provision for the national defense.
Necessary and Proper Clause
The last clause of Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution. This clause grants Congress the authority to make all laws that are "necessary and proper" and to execute those laws.
The clause in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution that gives Congress the authority to regulate commerce with other nations and among states.
Slaves are counted as 3/5ths when assessing the population of a state; this affects the number of representatives the state will have in the house.
Treatment of slavery in the Constitution
There was no law against slavery. The southern delegates tried to maxmize representation in population-based house by insisting that slaves were still people and should be fully included in the population count to determine the representatives, but northerners believed that they shouldnt't be counted since they were not considered citizens with freedom. at first there was the 3/5 rule but south wanted more so they logrolled it to allow for north to return the slaves, importation of slaves until 1808, and congress can regulate commerce and tax imports with a simple majority.
Separation of Powers
The distribution of government powers among several political institutions In the United States, at the national level power is divided between the three branches: Congress, the president, and the Supreme Court
Checks and Balances
A Constitutional mechanism giving each branch oversight and control of the other branches. Examples are the presidential veto, Senate approval of presidential appointments, and judicial review of presidential and congressional actions.
Separated Institutions Sharing Powers
This refers to the series of checks and balances within the national government. Congress is checked because it is divided into two separate and independent chambers, the president can veto their decisions, Vice president presides over senate, and judicial review of legislation. President is checked by congress's ability to impeach them, and Senate advice and consent power on appointments and treaties.
a body of electors in each state, chosen by voters, who formally elect the president and vice president of the United States. Each state's number of electoral votes equals its representation in Congress; the District of Columbia has three votes. An absolute majority of the total electoral vote is required to elect a president and a vice president.
"Take care" clause
The provision in Article II, Section 3 of the Constitution instructing the president to "take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed"
Antifederalist critiques of Constitution
Opposed the ratification of the Constitution, which the group believed would jeopardize individual freedom and states' rights. After ratification, their efforts led to adoption of the first ten amendments, the Bill of Rights.
Madison argues that the tyranny of the majority is best prevented at the national level because: an extended republic makes organization difficult, representation is a filter, and it prevents majority faction from dominating.
Written by James Madison, who wanted to get people to vote on the constitution. He insists that the tyranny of the government would be prevented by the checks and balances instituted in the constitution; within the national government (Judicial, Executive, Congress) and by the states (federalism).
This phrase is used in federalist 51 by Madison in order to illustrate how the three branches of government, when operating within the same field, will resist encroachment on their powers from other branches.
In Federalist 10 Madison talks about how one can control factions through representation and this, which prevents majority factions from dominating.
Mischief of faction
Refers to groups of people who are bound together by a common goal which benefits them but not necessarily the entire community and the consequence of their pursuit of these goals such as ignoring the rights of the minority, and disregarding the common good in pursuit of their own goals.
To remove an official from office prior to the end of their term especially for misconduct. Congress must vote him out.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the US Constitution.
The amendment that offers the most explicit endorsement of federalism to be found in the Constitution: "The powers not delegated to the US by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people."
The authority of a court to declare legislative and executive acts unconstitutional and therefore invalid.
Division of war powers (power to declare war; Commander-in-Chief)
Congress has the power to declare war and fund the military. The executive branch is considered commander-in-chief of the navy and army, and can negotiate treaties (but must be approved by senate)
Federal vs. unitary system
Federal - a system of government in which powers is divided between a central government and several regional governments. In the US the division is between the national government and the states.
Unitary - a system of government in which a single government unit holds the power to govern the nation.
Police Powers of the states
describes the basic right of governments to make laws and regulations for the benefit of their communities. Under the system of government in the United States, only states have the right to make laws based on their police power (Tenth Amendment).
a broad grant of money given by the federal government to a state government. The rant specifies the general area (such as education or health services) in which the funds may be spent, but leaves it to the state to determine the specific allocations.
Categorical grants (or "grants-in-aid")
funds given by Congress to state or local governments for a special purpose.
Statute or regulation that requires a state or local government, or private individuals or organizations, to perform certain actions, yet provides no money for fulfilling the requirements.
Laws passed by Congress that override or preempt state or local policies. The power of preemption derives from the Supremacy Clause (Article VI) of the Constitution.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Maryland enacted a statute imposing a tax on all banks operating in Maryland not chartered by the state. The statute provided that all such banks were prohibited from issuing bank notes except upon stamped paper issued by the state. The statute set forth the fees to be paid for the paper and established penalties for violations.
The Second Bank of the United States was established pursuant to an 1816 act of Congress. Maryland sued McCulloch for failing to pay the taxes due under the Maryland statute and McCulloch contested the constitutionality of that act. The state court found for Maryland.
Gonzalez v. Raich
Angela Raich uses homegrown marijuana grown by Diane Monson and it was destroyed and justified by CSA. Monson and Angel Raich sued, claiming that enforcing the CSA against them would violate the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, and the doctrine of medical necessity. Court upheld national law.
"Laboratories of democracy" (aka laboratories for reform)
The idea that states provide their citizens with opportunities to change politics on a smaller scale, giving everyone else the chance to observe the effects of a reform without risking it themselves.
Framers' attitude toward parties
They believed that parties were another form of faction and would only hamper democracy.
Incentives to build parties
They are tools to achieve policy goals (Constitution put premium on building majority alliances across institutions, Parties facilitate collective action central to policy making) and electoral goals (Party organization helps reach and mobilize voters and alleviate free-rider problem, Voters identify with party and form emotional attachment, Voters use party as a reputational cue that allows them to hold officeholders responsible).
Party in government
alliance of current officeholders cooperating to shape public policy
Party in organization
dedicated to electing the party's candidates and composed of party leaders, which are usually the people who coordinate endorsements
Party in electorate
composed of those voters who identify with the party and regularly vote for its nominees, they usually have a specific interest
Principle which asserts that a plurality rule election system tends to favor a two-party system.
Obstacles to third parties
Although a voter may want a third party candidate to win they realize that it is very unlikely that they will win and don't want to waste their vote, and they also realize that they may be allowing for a person they really don't want to be in office get in office by splitting the vote between two candidates the people do want.
Secret ballot (Australian ballot)
A ballot prepared and distributed by government officials that places the names of all candidates on a single list and is filled out by voters in private. First adopted in the US in 1888, it replaced oral voting and party-supplied ballots.
An election held before the general election in which voters decide which of a party's candidates will be the party's nominee for the general election.
election campaigns and other political processes in which candidates, not political parties, have most of the initiative and influence. Door to door canvassing, television advertising, and direct-mail fundraising are areas where candidates have most initiative and influence.
Ticket-splitting (split-ticket voting)
The act of voting for candidates from different political parties for different offices--for example, voting for a Republican for president and a Democrat for Senator.
Divided party control of government (divided government)
A term used to describe government when one political party controls the executive branch and the other political party controls the executive branch and the other political party controls one or both houses of legislature.
Party control of nominations
It comes from the party systems that developed and was shaped by the politicians strategic reactions to the oopportunities and challenges posed by the constitution. the first party led to the creation of the national parties. the second involved institutional innovation such as caucuses that nominated presidential candidates, held national conventions that discredited congressional caucuses and the spoils system. The thrid and fourth party system were about porgressive assaults and decline of party machines, creation of the australian ballot, and adoption of primary elections
after the progressive era because of increase movements, there is an increase rise of issue/ideological activists(not central to parties before the era), parties more polarized ideologically at the elite level, see more of a difference in parties(religious right having more say to the republican party and vietnam war protesters having increasing say to the democratic party), become more important to voters because you see the difference, less split-ticketing, more distinctive policies, joining the party for the policies that they are representing
parties were not ideologically and they were based on patronage politics, these were patronage organizations that did not deal with ideology, not bring policies goods as much as job benefits, so you could not see the difference in the parties before the progressive era so there is low level of attachment, but began declining afterwards
A delegate to the Democratic National COnvention who is eligible to attend because he or she is an elected party official. The Dmoecrats reserve a specific set of delegate slots for party officials.
"Golden Age" of presidential nominations (also called "mixed system")
most delegates still controlled by state and local parties, primaries in about 10-15 states, and some candidates used primaries to show their "electability" but still mainly need insider support(JFK use W. VIrginia to show catholics can win)
1968 Democratic convention
State and local party leaders were still pro-Vietnam War, so anti-war candidates won primaries. Selected "pro-war" hubert humphrey over anti-war Gene McCarthy, which led to riots and an embarrassment of the party that cost them the presidential election to Richard Nixon.
After the 1968 Democratic Convention, the reforms were created to repair the democratic coalition and restore convention's legitimacy.
It required states to select delegates in open process, which led to a big increase in primaries. The Democrats required the use of rough proportional representation and Republicans followed most of the Democratic reforms, but delegates allocation is closer to winner-take-all.
a way for the party to control the outcome of their candidates, it gives primary voters binding powers to choose the candidate that they want because the delegates have to vote for them at the convention.
party in organization and party in government keep control by choosing nominees that they want through endorsements and raising money, which influences the voters to vote for their candidates that they are supporting.
American creed (aka Core Values)
which are the classical liberalism(limited government), individual rights, equality(equal opportunity; political equality), popular sovereignty(authority ultimately with the people) and minority rights.
American core values vs. competing values
competing values are: religious exclusivity, belief in racial/ethnic group superiority, classical republicanism/communitarianism(deny individual its basic unit of society, there's a "public interest" and suspicious of outsiders; fear "corruption")
These ideals are contradict the core values.
the principles of limited government, constitutionalism, due process, rule of law and liberty of the individual, which were created as a reponse to the industrial revolution and urbanization.
This is the idea that the US democracy is different from the other countries, which Tocqueville examined and concluded. He believed that the immgrants of america were born equal, suspicious of government, they did not bring class divisions, everyone had core values, the institutions of government were different, and there was plentiful land, but not as such that you can have a land of aristocracies, showing the lack of rigid heirarchies like in Europe.
American Party / Know Nothings
organized in 1849 in New York, the members were sworn to secrecy and responded to inquires with "i know nothing about it". They were hostile to immigrants, esp Roman Catholics by making them scapegoats for the economic and social dislocations of the time. appealed to people disgusted with the corruption and compromises of the regular party politicians. They replaced the republicans as the democrats major opposition, but split over slavery and most of them joined the republican party. They were a successful third party until they split, but their support for the republican candidate although lincoln didnt like them, helped his win because they were in the same party.
Civil liberties vs. civil rights
Civil Liberties - Constitutional and legal protections from government interference with personal rights and freedom such as freedom of assembly, speech, and religion.
Civil Rights - The powers or privileges that are conferred on citizens by the Constitution and the courts and that entitle them to make claims upon the government. Civil rights protect individuals from arbitrary or discriminatory treatment at the hands of the government.
Senate "balance" (free vs. slave state)
The balance required matching states' entry-slave state with one free state-into the union. This would perserve the south's veto power over national policy.
Constitutional obstacles to abolition
The problem is getting all of the separate powers to agree to abolition something because it is a collective action problem. Politicians have to do what is best for their constituency and themselves, which leads to conflicting interests that makes it harder for people to agree and compromise on when trying to pass legislation
(1820) The plan matched Missouri's entry as a slave state with Maine's as a free state, thereby maintaining the balance in the Senate between free and slave states.
A bill that would have ended compromise by banning slavery in the recently acquired territories. He introduced this because slave labor depressed wages for free, white workers. (never passed evenly divided Senate so never became law)
Compromise of 1850
This allowed for the residents of the territories to decide for themselves whether to apply for statehood as a slave or free state.
this showed that compromises for free soil or slave states could not be settle due to the dred scott case. Therefore it became part of the slogan that Lincoln campaigned for his presidential election, to show that free soil should be permitted for the West to protect the white labor. If there were slavery permitted in the west than the whites could no longer compete with practically free labor of slaves.
the movement to end slavery, seek civil rights and liberties for african americans
Dred Scott case
The decision made was that african americans were not considered citizens, so they had no rights like the white men and any federal law that interfered with the right of an individual to his property including slaves was unconstitutional. State laws banning slavery was also unconstitutional. This helped Lincoln's election because of his slogan "free soil, free labor, free men" which is against this case.
granted citizenship, declared that no state shall "deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without the due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
It reaffirms the constitutional prescription of apportioning seats in the House of Representatives according to a state's population, but if a state fails to allow black males to vote then the number of seats are reduced proportionately.
this is significant because congress made readmission to the Union contingent on a state's ratification of the 14th amendment, but all that freed slaves got was the ballot
Section 1: the right of citizens of the US to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the US or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Section 2: The congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Laws enacted by southern legislatures after the Civil War that prevented former slaves from voting and holding certain jobs, among other prohibitions.
Jim Crow system
JIm Crow Laws were adopted throughout the south to disenfranchise black citizens and physically separate african Americans and whites. The laws institutionalized segregation of African Americans and whites in their access to schools, hospitals, prisons, public parks, restrooms, housing and public conveyances. It developed the white primary, poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clauses to bar blacks from voting.
lynching black people! hahah :D
A practice that permitted political parties to exclude African Americans from voting in primary elections. Because historically in the South winning the Democratic primary was tantamount to winning the general election, this law in effect disenfranchised black voters in southern states.
Statutes stating that only those people whose grandfather had voted before the Reconstruction could vote, unless they passed a literacy or wealth test. After the Civil War this mechanism was used to disenfranchise African Americans.
Plessy v. Ferguson
This case declared that the South's Jim Crow laws and systematic segregation was constitutional. It establishes the separate but equal doctrine, which officially sanctioned segregation throughout the South for the next half-century.
Brown v. Board of Education
The court decided that the schools should be accessible to all, which desegregated the schools. It changed the interpretation of the 14th amendment and overturned Plessy v Ferguson. This case increased more litigations of desegregation, but with lack of enforcement of these rulings, it did not end segregation completely.
This is an example the Federalism, and how states were being imposed on by federal standards.
Civil Rights Act, 1964
Johnson persuaded Senate Republicans to vote with the northern Democrats to break the southern filibuster, which helped to pass the law that authorized the national government to end segregation and discrimination in public education, employment and public accommodations.
It also gave the US attorney general power to guarantee voting rights for all and mandates equal access to public accommodations.
one of the most effective provisions because
it gave states incentive to follow the law or they wouldn't get federal grants and the EEOC was created to enforce the barring of job discrimination.
Voting Rights Act, 1965
Permitted appointment, under Civil Service Commission, of voting examiners in place of local registrars in all areas where less than 50% of those eligible to vote actually voted in the 1964 presidential election. Use of literacy tests and similar mechanisms to bar black voting was suspended. Covered states had to obtain clearance from the Justice Dept. before changing election laws.
the results were the african american registration and turnout soared, and the number of african american elected officials increased dramatically.
He was Vice-President to Kennedy, but when Kennedy died, he succeeded as President. He still fought for the civil rights programs that they agreed on in the Democratic party. The Democrats were committing to strong civil rights programs because they wanted to appeal the black constituency to get the majority by having black voters supporting them.
He implemented the Great Society programs in employment, education, and health care. he tried his best to respond to the pleas of his black constituency because of the civil rights movement by implementing more civil rights laws. Another great expansion of Federal power.
He was a senator of Louisiana that was successful in convincing the majority of Louisiana(the working class) to support him by appealing to their interests. He was able to consolidate power through corruption and bribery because he his constituents did not care about it as long as it was beneficial to them.
He is an example of a local figure using parties to get national power, but he also shows how his methods of attaining power would not be successful at the national level. Since the majority of Louisiana is not the majority at the national level and him having to appeal to a more diverse constituency, he was not as successful at the national level than the state level. This shows that you can get power at the state level fairly quickly, but it changes at the national level because he had to get support from the entire party and the nation, which he did not really have and it made him unsuccessful at the national level.
is where the national government and the state government have equal power and are seen as existing in separate spheres with clearly designated powers to each.
Cooperative (Shared) Federalism
refers to the national and state government sharing powers and their powers are not clearly distinct.
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