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BIO 110 p3
Terms in this set (148)
1. Born in 1809
2. Darwin was the naturalist on board the British ship Beagle. It lasted around 1831-1836. Spent a lot of time in the South American coastline.
3. Observed diversity among the plants and animals, but also unity as well.
4. With Uniformitarianism he formed the belief that if the Earth can change so too can the species that inhabit it.
Prevailing ideas at the time were:
1. Earth is relatively 6,000+ years old.
2. The species on Earth are unchanging and unrelated.
Darwin traveled here and discovered a variety of organisms that at some points seemed diverse, but were also a lot alike.
the author of the Principles of Geology (1830)
Suggested that the Earth is much older than 60,000 years old and is sculpted by gradual geological processes.
the geological theory that the earth's crust alters during continuous and uniform processes.
The Origin of Species
1. Published by Darwin in 1859
2. Proposed that life evolves.
3. He used the phrase descent wit modification to describe evolution.
4. He proposed that ALL species are united by descent from common ancestry.
What two points did the Origin of Species emphasize?
1. Evolution occurs
2. It occurs by Natural Selection
Evidence used to support evolution include:
1. Fossil Records
2. Comparative Anatomy
3. Comparative embryology
4. Molecular biology
Fossils are preserved remnants of ____________, found in __________________, which form layers over time. Fossils trace the history of life from the origin to its current state.
past organisms; sedimentary rocks
Comparative anatomy is the comparison of ______________________ between different species.
Comparative embryology is the comparison between different species of body structures that are present only in __________________.
Closely related species will have DNA with very _________________. There are fewer differences between them because they have _____________________ diverging from their common ancestor.
similar nucleotide sequences; spent less time
1. All species can produce more offspring than environment can support.
2. It leads to competition among the offspring for these resources.
Individual organisms within the same species exhibit variation. Most variation is ___________________. Those with favorable gees _______________.
inherited; pass it down
Darwin was able to infer natural selection by combining these two observation.
1. Natural selection is unequal reproductive success. It is a selective advantage in a particular environment.
Individuals with more competitive traits will give them a __________________ to _______________their genes on to the net generation.
competitive edge; survive, reproduce & pass
An accumulation of trait over time is considered ___________________
How is Natural Selection not a conscious, deliberate, or active process?
E. some strains of bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics.
Bacteria do not decide they need resistance to antibiotics.
If a variation of bacteria is resistant to antibiotics, they're more likely to survive than reproduce.
The antibiotics do not create the resistance, they select those with the resistance.
Evolution is often described as a change in allele frequencies of a population from one generation to the next.
Specifically, this is microevolution, which shows variation between species.
Populations are groups of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time.
A population is the smallest level in the biological hierarchy that can evolve (because populations are the smallest unit which exhibits diversity)
P represents the
frequency of the dominant allele in a population.
q represents the
frequency of the recessive allele
p2 represents the frequency of
homozygous dominant genotypes
2pq represents the frequency of
q2 represents the frequency of
Hardy Weinberg Formula
p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
If the allele frequencies, and therefore the genotype frequencies, stay the same from one generation to the net, the population is in ____________.
equilibrium. It doesn't evolve.
If the allele and genotype frequencies do change over the generations, the population is undergoing _____________.
_________________________ is evolution on a larger scale than microevolution.
Macroevolution includes ________________.
_______________ is the origin of new species from currently existing species.
What is a species?
Two organisms belong to the same species if they have the potential to breed with each other and produce viable, fertile offspring
______________ is a reproductive barrier that prevents mating or fertilization between individuals of different species.
______________ is a reproductive barrier that operates after hybrid offsprings between individuals of different species have been produced.
__________________ form when a species' population is split. Each new population follows its own separate evolutionary course.
The most common mechanism by which a population is separated is ___________________________.
1. A geographic barrier physically splits a population into two or more populations.
2. Each new population is subjected to natural selection on its own.
3. Speciation occurs if reproductive barriers form between the isolated populations.
Gene pools merge:
when no speciation occurs
when speciation has occurred.
sympatic speciation occurs if a _____________________________________ between parents and offspring.
mutation creates a reproductive barrier
Why does sympatric speciation occur?
Due to accidents in cell division and hybridization from 2 different parent species resulting in extra chromosomes.
A multiple number of chromosomes is called a _________________________.
polyploidy (more common in plants)
New structures can evolve by way of ______________.
is the modification of a current structure for a new function.
New structures can also arise due to _________________.
is retention into adulthood of features that were strictly juvenile in a species' ancestors.
is the scientific study of the diversity of and relationships among organisms.
Systematics consists of ______________________________.
taxonomy and phylogenetics.
Who established Taxonomy? What does it consist of?
Carlous Linnaeus (1700); nomenclature and classification
Nomenclature involves the naming of species.
All specie are assigned binomial latin names. Their species and genus (First letter or first name is always capitalized, and both names are italicized)
Classification organizes species into larger and broader groups. Name them all.
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species. (Dumb kids playing catch on freeway go squish)
All life on Earth can be classified into just three domains.
_____________: unicellular organisms.
_____________: unicellular organisms that live in extreme environments. E. Bacteria and archaea (consists of very different types of prokaryotic organisms)
____________: All eukaryotic organisms belonging to Eukarya. (Fungi, plants, animals, & protists)
Bacteria; Archaea; Eukarya
The newer field of phylogenetics attempts to determine the evolutionary history of a species, family, class, etc.
Phylogenetics searches for _____________.
A clade ___________________.
includes a common ancestor & all of its descendants. This establishes a lineage of organisms
1. Changed evolutionary biologists understanding of evolutionary history and relationships.
2. Refined relationships between organisms as more information is gathered.
3. Describes the evolution of both Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic organisms.
evolved by plants 3.5 million years ago.
What is considered the evolutionary ancestor of most animals?
4 stage hypothesis of microbial Life
1. Abiotic (non-living) synthesis of small molecules (nucleotide & amino acid monomers)
2. Joining of monomers to form polymers (nucleic acids & proteins)
3. Preservation organic molecules in membranes (Acting as pre-cells)
4. Emergence of self-replication molecules, leading to cellular division.
The origin of multicellular life
originated from unicellular organisms that formed colonies, then specialized in distinct functions.
Describe the cycle of the origin of multicellular life
Unicellular protist -> ancestral colony formed when a cell divided and remained attached to its offspring -> Cells in colony become specialized and independent (Food synthesizing cells and locomotor cells)-> Additional specialization may have led to sex cells (gametes) and nonreproductive cells (somatic cells).
The earliest organisms become Domain Bacteria, Domain Archaea and Domain Eukarya. Domain Eukaraya become the protists (multiple kingdoms), Kingdom plantae, kingdom fungi, kingdom animalia.
Plants are ___________________.
multicellular , autotrophic, terrestrial eukaryotes.
Plants obtain light and carbon dioxide from the air, but water and nutrients from the soil.
- They therefore must possess structures above and below ground.
- Shoots (stems and leaves) and roots
How are substances transferred in plants?
Vascular tissue transports substances between the roots and shoots.
________________ transports water up from the roots.
________________ transports food (sugars) down from the shoot.
Plant gametes are produced within _______________________ where they are protected against drying out.
embroyonic plants develop within protection of gametangia.
What features are important to terrestrial plants that are not to algae that help in its plumbing?
xylem and phloem are important to terrestrial plants but not algae because algae is not constantly looking for water. Vascular bundles transport the water and sugars into the plant.
Algae has ____________ reproduction method than plants.
Plant gametes are produced within _______________, where they are protected against drying out.
Sperm travels to eggs, which remain in the gametangia.
Embroyonic plants develop within the protection of the gametangia.
According to the __________________, in plant evolution there have been four major periods accounting for each major groups of plants that exist today.
Evolutionary ancestor: ____________________ (group of algae)
_____________________ and others (Seedless vascular plants)
seed plants with flowers
What is the common ancestry of flowers?
Ancestral green algae is the common ancestor of the first terrestrial adaptations (charophytes), of vascular tissues (bryophytes), of seeds (ferns and flowers), and of flowers (gymnosperms and angiosperms).
600,000 years ago.
________________ were the earliest plants with the first terrestrial adaptations.
The most familiar bryophytes are _______________
_______________ are not completely free from the constraint of water.
Sperm must travel to eggs ___________.
__________________________ in Bryophytes.
Bryophytes are also called __________________________.
Mosses therefore grow very low to the ground because they cannot transport water and various substances far distances
vascular tissue is not present.
___________________________ vascular plants are considered the first to evolve vascular tissue
Seedless vascular plants
The most familiar seedless vascular plants are ________________.
Like mosses, fern sperm must travel through water to reach fern eggs. Though they do possess roots and shoots, this ____________________________________________________________________________________.
water constraint keeps ferns from growing tall.
Gymnosperms were considered the first plants to reproduce by seeds and pollen. The most familiar gymnosperms are _____________.
Pollen delivers sperm to eggs
without relying on water
Pollen is carried by ____________ in gymnosperms.
wind; Gymnosperms can grow very tall.
gymnosperms have specialized gametangia called _______________. After fertilization occurred, the ovule develops into a _____, which __________ the developing embryo.
ovules (located within cones); seed; protects and nourishes.
Angiosperms evolved a new trait -- the __________________. Also called __________________, angiosperms are the most abundant and diverse plants today.
flower; flowering plants
Flowers provide ____________________. ____________ carry pollen from flower to flower, rather than relying on chance wind like pollination.
directed pollination; Insects
Flowers further _____________ in a structure called the ovary.
enclose the ovule
The _________ develops into a ___________ after fertilization.
The _________ develops into a ___________. ________ contain seeds! _______ allow for greater dispersal of the embryo.
fungi are multicellular (mostly), heterotrophic, terrestrial eukaryotes.
Yeasts are ______________.
Fungi feed by ______________.
unicellular fungi; absorption
Fungi are made of tissues called ____________.
The majority of a fungus exists below the ground in a tangled network of hypahe called a _________________.
During reproduction, fungal reproductive structures protrude from the ground. What are they?
Human diseases caused by fungi include:
1. Athlete's foot
2. Yeast infection
Along with bacteria, fungi are the main chemical recyclers (decomposers) within ecosystems. Fungi form mutualistic relationships with plants called
has enabled plants to be more efficient in the uptake of water and minerals from soil.
Fungi serve as _____________________
food and medicine.
What is an animal?
1. multicellular eukaryotic organisms.
2. Heterotrophs that get nutrients by ingestion.
3. Are able to digest their food with their bodies.
Life Cycle of a Sea Star Showing Animal Development
1. Most animals are diploid. (haploid egg & sperm)
2. They reproduce sexually, then go through many developmental stages.
sperm & egg ---> zygote ---> (divides into a) blastula ---> gastrula
Animals are considered to have evolved from __________________.Multiple protist cells are thought to gradually become more specialized, developing distinct layers.
colonial, flagellated protists
Major phyla of animals are present in old Cambrian rock, exhibiting tremendous animal diversity. The reason for this is because life suddenly appeared or "Exploded" as different forms.
To build a phylogeny of all animals, scientists compare __________________________________.
anatomy, embryology, & molecular biology.
There are four key characteristics of animal development.
1. the development of true tissues (endoderm, mesoderm, & ectoderm)
2. the development of complex body symmetry (radial symmetry - the sea anemone and the pot vs. bilateral symmetry - the lobster and the shovel)
3. the development of a true body cavity led to complex internal anatomy and physiology.
4. Among the more complex coelomate animals we can distinguish two main types coelom formation based on their embryonic development
a fluid-filled compartment separating the outer body from the digestive tract.
The cavity may be absent, present as a ___________________________.
pseudocoelom or a true coelom.
In __________________, such as vertebrates and sea stars, the first embryonic infolding becomes the _______.
Deuterostomes; form the anus first.
In ___________________, the first embryonic infolding becomes the _______
Sponges ___________________, so they are thought to be a primitive animal.
Sponges are __________ (attached to substrate) and lack true tissue.
Sponges have several autonomous cell types, such as ____________ and ________________.
amoebocytes and choanocytes
Many sponges ____________ symmetry, meaning that their parts are arranged around a central axis.
Cnidarians are the simplest animals with true tissues.
These animals exist in either of two radial symmetrical forms. They include jellyfish & sea anemones.
Sessile polyps, such as hydra, corals, sea anemones.
What are free floating medusas?
incomplete digestive system, the food enters, and wastes exits through the same opening.
_________________ are represented by soft-boded animals, usually protected by hard shells. They include gastropods, bivalves, and cephalopods.
Many molluscs feed by using a file-like organ called a ____________ to scrape up food.
The body of a mollusc has three main parts:
1. A muscular foot used for movement
2. A visceral mass housing most of the internal organs.
3. A mantle, which secretes the shell if present
Flatworms are the simplest bilateral animals.
They do not have a ___________, nor _______________________, they have a ________, not an _____. Most are free-living forms called _______________.
coelom; a complete digestive tract; mouth; anus; planarians
Some flatworms are parasitic. They include:
Tapeworms and liverflukes.
Human tapeworms can reach over _____________
60 feet long. (75 ft is the longest recorded)
Annelids are worms whose bodies are elongated by _______________________.
repetitive body segments
There are three types of annelids.
1. _______________ are earthworms, which eat their way through soil.
2. ______________ are free-swimming or burrowing marine worms.
3. ______________ are blood-sucking parasites.
Roundworms exhibit a ____________________________, having two openings, a mouth and an anus.
complete digestive tracts
Arthropods have specialized segments and an exoskeleton made of _____________.
There are four main groups of arthropods.
Arachnids, crustaceans, millipedes and centipedes, and insects.
include spiders, scorpions, ticks, and mites.
are crabs, lobsters crayfish, shrimps, and barnacles.
Millipedes and centipedes
two pairs of legs per segment | one paid of legs per segment.
are the most diverse of any type of animal.
organisms in this phylum are characterized by their __________. They usually have an endoskeleton & water vascular system. These groups includes sea stars, sand dollars, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers.
spiny skin echinoderms
This phylum can be further classified into 3 subphylum. They all feature phylum cordata.
Chordate characteristics || There are four defining characteristics of organisms in the __________________________.
- Dorsal hollow nerve cord (spinal cord)
- Notochord (a support for fins or limbs)
- Pharyngeal gills slit
- Post-anal tails
The order of vertebrate evolution is:
4.Mammals and birds
turtles, lepidosaurs (lizards, snakes), crocodilians, pterosaurs, and dinosaurs.
Characteristics enabling reptiles to live on land include:
1. Scales (prevent dehydration)
2. Lungs (to breathe air)
3. amniotic egg (that does not desiccate)
4. ectotherms (cold-blooded which obtain their body heat from the environment)
Birds have similar anatomy and physiology to some dinosaurs called _______________________.
1. In birds, ___________________, are developed enabling flight.
2. Some similarities include _____________ (making them lighter), the _____________________ (reducing weight), and a ____________________ (To optimize respiration).
feathers and wings; hollow bones; absence of specific organs; insulated warm body temperature
Two key features:
1. _______________ insulate the body
2. __________________ produces milk nourish youth.
2. Mammary glands
_________________ are egg-laying mammals, including the echidna and the duck-billed platypus.
The second group are the _____________, which
carry their young in a pouch.
The largest group are the _______________________ (placental) mammals.
This group included today's largest mammals, in both aquatic and terrestrial environments.
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