44 terms

Chapter 10 Terms - Kingdom Plantae

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plastids
structures necessary for plants, one example is a chloroplast
root
the part of a plant that does not have nodes and supplies nutrients for water
node
a region where a leaf is or was attached
taproot system
has one or a few main roots that are thicker and stronger with root hairs
fibrous root system
has a cluster of roots that are about equal size and branch out
woody stems
made of stronger cellulose filled cells to support large plants like trees and bushes
herbaceous stems
softer and more flexible stems that are usually green in color
blade
the flat part of a leaf
veins
vascular tubes that run through blades carrying water and nutrients
compound leaf
a leaf blade with several leaflets and one petiole
parallel ventation
veins that run the length of the leaf
palmate ventation
veins that branch out like the bones of the hand from one central point
pinnate ventation
veins that branch off one main vein at the center of the leaf
petiole
the part between the node and the blade
alternate arrangment
one blade at each node
opposite arrangment
two blades at each node
whorled arrangment
three or more blades at each node
vascular bundles
groups of xylem and phloem tubes
xylem
tubes that carry water from the roots
phloem
tubes that carry sugars from photosynthesis down from the leaves
fibers
groups of long narrow cells that are very strong
epidermis
the outermost tissue of the leaves, young roots, and young stems
bark
cork cells that are dead cells with thick walls
vascular cambium
cells that reproduce new xylem and phloem cells
stomata
openings on the backs of the leaves where water and gases escape
guard cell
special epidermal cells that open and close stomata
lenticel
tiny openings in the back for gas exchange
transpiration
water exiting through the leaves
root hairs
extensions on the roots that absorb water
palisade layer
the layer of the leaf densely packed and having the most chloroplasts
spongy layer
tissue of the lead that has more space between the cells and fewer chloroplasts
hormone
a chemical that controls growth, and auxin is one kind found in plants
tropism
growth responses to the environment
phototropism
a plant's growth response to light
gravitropism (geotropism)
a plant's growth response to gravity
photoperiodism
a plant's response to the amount of daylight it receives
positive phototropism
a plant turns toward the light
negative gravitropism (negative geotropism)
a plant's stem when placed on it's side turns upwards
thigmotropism
a plant's growth response to touch
apical meristem
regions at the ends of stems that produce growth
lateral meristem
growth areas found in places other than the tips of stems
long day plants
require long periods of light
short day plants
can grow with shorter periods of light
day neutral plants
bloom whenever temperatures and conditions are favorable
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