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Biology Unit 5 - Traits are Us

Biology Flashcards
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Asexual reproduction
process of reproduction involving a single parent
Binary Fission
type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells.
Budding
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Chromosome Number
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Abnormalities
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DNA
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Replication
Process of copying DNA prior to cell division
mRNA
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tRNA
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rRNA
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Dominant traits
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Recessive traits
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Heterozygous
Having two different alleles for a particular gene
Homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a particular gene.
Alleles
One of a number of different forms of a gene
Fertilization
Process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell.
Zygote
Fertilized egg
Gene
Sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait; factor that is passed from parent to offspring.
Mitosis
Part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides.
Meiosis
Process in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell.
Gametes
Sex cell
Crossing over
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.
Pedigree
Chart that shows the presence or absence of a trait according to the relationships within a family across several generations.
Phenotypes
Physical characteristics of an organism
Genetypes
Genetic makeup of an organism
Protein synthesis
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Punnet Square
Diagram that can be used to predict the genotype and phenotype combinations of a genetic cross.
Genetic cross
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Monohybrid
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RIbosomes
Cell organelle consisting of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in a cell; the site of protein synthesis.
Sex-linked Traits
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Sexual reproduction
Type of reproduction in which cells from two parents unite to form the first cell of a new organism.