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35 terms

Sx, Signs, and Diseases: Ch 6

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blood dyscrasia (dis-KRAY-zee-ah)
Any disease condition involving blood cells.
hemorrhage
Loss of a large amount of blood, externally or internally.
pancytopenia (PAN-sy-toh-PEE-nee-ah)
Decreased numbers of all types of blood cells due to failure of the bone marrow to produce stem cells
septicemia
Severe bacterial infection of the tissues that spreads to the blood
anisocytosis (an-EYE-soh-sy-TOH-sis)
Erythrocytes that are either too large or too small
poikilocytosis (POY-kih-loh-sy-TOH-sis)
Erythocytes that vary in shape. A sickle cell is a crescent-shaped erythrocyte seen in sickle cell anemia
anemia
The number of erythocytes in the blood is decreased
aplastic anemia
Failure of the bone marrow to produce erythrocytes because it has been damaged by disease, cancer, radiation, or chemotherapy drugs.
iron deficiency anemia
Caused by a deficiency of iron in the diet. Also caused by increase loss of iron due to menstruation, hemorrhage, or chronic blood loss.
sickle cell anemia
Inherited genetic abnormality of an amino acid in hemoglobin. Sickle cells are fragile (because they frequently change shape), and they have a shortened life span, which results in anemia.
polycythemia vera (PAWL-ee-sy-THEE-me-ah)
Increased number of erythocytes due to uncontrolled production by the red marrow
hemolysis
lysis (process of breaking down or dissolving) of red blood cells with liberation of hemoglobin
hemolytic
Pertaining to hemolysis
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Severe infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
immunodeficiency
Inability to produce a normal complement of antibodies or immunologically sensitized T cells especially in response to specific antigens
immunocompromised
Having the immune system impaired or weakened
opportunistic
Of, relating to, or being a microorganism that is usually harmless but can become pathogenic when the host's resistance to disease is impaired
leukemia
Cancer of the leukocytes
mononucleosis
Infectious disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
multiple myeloma (MY-eh-LOH-mah)
Cancer of the plasma cells that produce antibodies
coagulopathy
Any disease that affects the ability of the blood to clot normally
thrombus
blood clot
thrombosis
The formation or presence of a blood clot within a blood vessel
embolus
An abnormal particle circulating in the blood
embolism
The sudden obstruction of a blood vessel by an embolus
disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
Severe disorder of clotting in which multiple small thrombi are formed throughout the body
hemophilia
Inherited genetic abnormality of a gene on the X chromosome. This causes a lack or a deficiency of a specific clotting factor
thrombocytopenia (THRAWM-boh-SY-toh-PEE-nee-ah)
Deficiency in the number of thrombocytes due to exposure to radiation or chemicals or drugs that damage stem cells in the bone marrow
lymphadenopathy (lim-FAD-eh-NAWP-eh-thee)
Enlarged lymph nodes
lymphadema
Generalized swelling of an arm or a leg that occurs after surgery when a chain of lymph nodes has been removed.
lymphoma
Cancerous tumor of lymphocytes in the lymph nodes or lymphoid tissue
Hodgkin's lymphoma
Most common type of lymphoma. Occurs in young adults-- painless, enlarged cervical lymph node in neck.
splenomegaly
Enlargement of the spleen, felt on palpation of the abdomen
thymoma
Usually benign tumor of the thymus
autoimmune disease
Disease in which the body makes antibodies against its own tissues