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blood dyscrasia (dis-KRAY-zee-ah)

Any disease condition involving blood cells.


Loss of a large amount of blood, externally or internally.

pancytopenia (PAN-sy-toh-PEE-nee-ah)

Decreased numbers of all types of blood cells due to failure of the bone marrow to produce stem cells


Severe bacterial infection of the tissues that spreads to the blood

anisocytosis (an-EYE-soh-sy-TOH-sis)

Erythrocytes that are either too large or too small

poikilocytosis (POY-kih-loh-sy-TOH-sis)

Erythocytes that vary in shape. A sickle cell is a crescent-shaped erythrocyte seen in sickle cell anemia


The number of erythocytes in the blood is decreased

aplastic anemia

Failure of the bone marrow to produce erythrocytes because it has been damaged by disease, cancer, radiation, or chemotherapy drugs.

iron deficiency anemia

Caused by a deficiency of iron in the diet. Also caused by increase loss of iron due to menstruation, hemorrhage, or chronic blood loss.

sickle cell anemia

Inherited genetic abnormality of an amino acid in hemoglobin. Sickle cells are fragile (because they frequently change shape), and they have a shortened life span, which results in anemia.

polycythemia vera (PAWL-ee-sy-THEE-me-ah)

Increased number of erythocytes due to uncontrolled production by the red marrow


lysis (process of breaking down or dissolving) of red blood cells with liberation of hemoglobin


Pertaining to hemolysis

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

Severe infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).


Inability to produce a normal complement of antibodies or immunologically sensitized T cells especially in response to specific antigens


Having the immune system impaired or weakened


Of, relating to, or being a microorganism that is usually harmless but can become pathogenic when the host's resistance to disease is impaired


Cancer of the leukocytes


Infectious disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

multiple myeloma (MY-eh-LOH-mah)

Cancer of the plasma cells that produce antibodies


Any disease that affects the ability of the blood to clot normally


blood clot


The formation or presence of a blood clot within a blood vessel


An abnormal particle circulating in the blood


The sudden obstruction of a blood vessel by an embolus

disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

Severe disorder of clotting in which multiple small thrombi are formed throughout the body


Inherited genetic abnormality of a gene on the X chromosome. This causes a lack or a deficiency of a specific clotting factor

thrombocytopenia (THRAWM-boh-SY-toh-PEE-nee-ah)

Deficiency in the number of thrombocytes due to exposure to radiation or chemicals or drugs that damage stem cells in the bone marrow

lymphadenopathy (lim-FAD-eh-NAWP-eh-thee)

Enlarged lymph nodes


Generalized swelling of an arm or a leg that occurs after surgery when a chain of lymph nodes has been removed.


Cancerous tumor of lymphocytes in the lymph nodes or lymphoid tissue

Hodgkin's lymphoma

Most common type of lymphoma. Occurs in young adults-- painless, enlarged cervical lymph node in neck.


Enlargement of the spleen, felt on palpation of the abdomen


Usually benign tumor of the thymus

autoimmune disease

Disease in which the body makes antibodies against its own tissues

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