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AP practice Exam Form A

A major function of hepatocytes is the formation and secretion of which substance?

Hepatocytes (liver cells) generate and secrete bile

Bicarbonate buffers are a component of intestinal juice that are produced where?

in the pancreas

where is hydrochloric acid produced?

parietal cells in the gastric glands of the stomach

pepsinogen is secreted by what type of cells?

chief cells in the gastric glands of the stomach


precursor (zymogen) of pepsin, secreted by chief cells in the stomach


degrades food proteins into peptides

pH affect on hemoglobin and oxygen

increase in pH (alkalosis) causes increase in hemoglobin O2 saturation; decrease in pH (acidosis) decreases hemoglobin O2 saturation

alkalosis affect on hemoglobin O2 sat

increase in pH leads to increase in hemoglobin O2 sat

acidosis affect on hemoglobin O2 sat

decrease in pH leads to decrease in hemoglobin O2 sat

pCO2 affect on pH

increased pCO2 causes decrease in pH

pCO2 affect on hemoglobin O2 sat

pCO2 increase causes decrease in pH (acidosis) which decreases hemoglobin O2 sat

BPG affect on hemoglobin O2 sat

BPG increase causes decrease in bound O2 on hemoglobin

pyloric sphincter

structure that allows communication between the inferior stomach and the duodenum of the small intestine

function of surfactant produced by type II alveolar cells

reduce surface tension for easier expansion during inspiration

surfactant in alveoli decreases ___ ___

surface tension

surface tension

contractive tendency of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force. (its why objects float on water)

bicarbonate buffers are found in intestinal juice and produced in the ___


bile is secreted by ___

hepatocytes (liver cells)

parietal cells in the stomach secrete ___ ___

hydrochloric acid

chief cells in the stomach secrete ___



yellow or greenish liquid secreted by the liver that aids in absorption and digestion of lipids (fats)


the breakdown of glycogen stores for use when there is insufficient glucose (catabolic reaction)


complex plolysaccharide stored in the liver and in muscles. It's broken down for energy through glycogenolysis when glucose levels are low

two functions of glycogenolysis

1-maintain blood glucose level
2-provide energy during fight-or-flight response


the formation of glycogen from glucose (anabolic reactions)


catabolism of carbs (ie- glucose) by enzymes for the release of energy and pyruvic acid


synthesizing glucose from a non-carbohydrate source such as fats or proteins.

brachiocephalic vein

very large vein in the trunk formed by fusion fo the jugular and subclavian veins. It then emties into the Superior Venae Cavae.

the basilic and brachial veins of the upper arm empty into the ___ vein


The radial and ulnar veins fuse to form this vein that runs most of the length of the arm

brachial vein

cephalic vein location

length of lateral arm

3 veins of the neck (two of each)

internal jugular, external jugular and vertebral veins

Which is the first hemostatic event to occur following damage to an arteriole?

Arteriolar smooth muscles contract in vascular spasm

Longest stage of the cardiac cycle?

time the atrioventricular valves are open. Bridges all of ventricular systole and diastole

How does the body respond to increased CO2 in the blood stream?


A loss in the function of gastric chief cells would result in a decreased ability to digest which substance?


gastric chief cells produce ___ which is then converted to pepsin



enzyme that breaks down proteins during digestion

bile salts and pancreatic enzymes digest what substance?


___ is found in some plants and is unable to be digested by humans


starches are digested primarily by ___ and ___ enzymes

salivary and pacreatic enzymes

describe the pressure in the alveoli during normal quiet respiration

The alveolar pressure is less than atmospheric pressure during inspiration, but greater than atmospheric pressure during expiration.


colloidal suspension of a liquid in another liquid

how do bile salts aid in the digestion of fat?

break down or emulsify fat droplets

triglycerides are digested by the enzyme ___ ___

pancreatic lipase

before enzymes act on fats, they must be emulsified by ___ ___

bile salts


breaking chemical bonds by adding water. Opposite of dehydration synthesis. catabolic

dehydration synthesis

opposite of hydrolysis. anabolic reacition that joins two molecules by removing water.

cardiac output

the volume ejected from the ventricle into the aorta each minute (HR x SV = CO)

ESV (End Systolic Volume)

blood volume in the ventricle at the end of systole, the contraction phase

EDV (End Diastolic Volume)

blood volume in the ventricle before a contraction (at the end of diasole/relaxation)

Stroke Volume

amount of blood pumped out of ventricle with one contraction (SV= EDV - ESV)

The force of ventricular contraction ___ when venous return increases


Nondigestible substances move through the sections of the colon in which order?

ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid

The segments of the colon are, in order:

ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid

Where in the cardiovascular system is blood pressure normally the highest?

the systemic circuit

pressure is generally high/low in the pulmonary circuit?

relatively low (high pressure causes edema)

cause of expiration during normal, quiet breathing?

passive recoil of the lungs and chest wall

which is an active process and which is passive inpiration/expiration?

inspiriation is active
expiration is passive

3 phases of gastric secretion

1-cephalic phase
2-gastric phase
3-intestinal phase

cephalic phase of gastric secretion

begins when you smell, think of or taste food. directed by CNS, prepares stomach to receive food. speeds up production of gastric juices.

gasric phase of secretion

begins with arrival of food in the stomach.

Intestinal phase

begins when chyme enters small intestines. controls rate of gastric emptying to allow max absoption of nutrients.

enterogastric reflex

The enterogastric reflex specifically inhibits the intestinal phase by stimulating sympathetic activity and secretion of cholecystokinin which, in turn, decrease motility and delay emptying.

gastroenteric reflex

stimulates motility of small intestine to accelerate movement

gastroileal reflex

opens ileocecal valve allowing materials to move from small intestine to alrge intestine.

In the cephalic phase, reflexes from the ___-based senses stimulate increased gastric activity.


In the gastric phase, ___ receptors and ___ reactions control gastric activity.

stretch receptors and hormonal reactions

when blood pH decreases does more or less O2 become available for tissues?

more O2 is released from hemoglobin in response to the increased acidity making more O2 available to tissues.

does low blood pH increase or decrease RBC metabolic rates?

acidity increases RBC metabolic rates

is cholesterol soluble in water?

not soluble in water


blood components that carry cholesterol through the blood stream.


blood component that transports metal ions (ie iron) in blood stream

How does the heart react to hyperkalemia?

Potassium's effect on muscle cells causes contractions to become weak and irregular and eventually to stop.

effect of hypercalcemia on the heart

Heart irritability is increased

glycogen conversion to glucose, is this catabolic or anabolic?


___ is primarily water with small amounts of enzymes that initiate the breakdown of carbohydrates


Anemia is a disorder of which blood element?

Anemia is a deficiency in oxygen-carrying red blood cells (erythrocytes)

Leukemia is a disorder of what blood element?

WBC (leukocytes)

clotting problems and electrolyte imbalances are disorders of what blood element?


thrombocytopenia and thrombocytosis are disorders of what blood element?





abnormal decrease in blood platelets


high blood platelet count


cancers of the bone marrow and/or white blood cells


deficiency in oxygen-carrying red blood cells (erythrocytes)

Which blood group will have its erythrocytes agglutinated by either type A plasma or type B plasma?

type AB has both antigen A and antigen B. Thus it will be agglutinated by both anti-A antibody and anti-B antibody.


clumping of cells due to introduction of an antibody

what affect does living at high altitude have on your erythrocytes?

increased erythrocyte production

Which event occurs first after the P wave?

contraction of the atria

The aortic valve opens during the ___ and closes at the end of the ___ ___

opens during QRS, closes at end of T wave

isovolumetric contraction

early in ventricular systole, ventricles are contracting isometrically with all valves closed. Pressure is rising but no blood is flowing.

isovolumetric relaxation

early in diastole, all heart valves are closed, ventricles are relaxing but pressure is still higher than atrial pressure so no blood is flowing into ventricles yet.

cardiovascular control centers such as cardioacceletory and cardioinhibitory centers are located in what part of the brain?

medulla oblongata

which have relatively more smooth muscle, small arteries or large arteries?

Small arteries are more muscular than large arteries

the largest arteries with elastic walls and few smooth muscle cells are said to be ___ arteries


are valves found in veins or arteries?

veins to prevent backflow

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