midterm 2

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Which of the following statements does NOT describe the sweat lodge ceremony of the Sioux Indians?
It often causes a sensory overload that can lead to cataplexy.
Fetal alcohol syndrome is characterized by
low birth weight, a small head, and bodily deficits
Conventional, group-oriented morals are typical of
older children and most adults
The tiny gaps separating neurons from one another and across which information must be transmitted are known as
synapses
As children attempt to solve problems or discover principles, Vygotsky believed that adults can help children learn how to think as well as learn important cultural values when they use
scaffolding
The left hemisphere processes information
sequentially
The right hemisphere is especially adapted for handling perceptual skills, such as drawing a picture or recognizing melodies, while the left hemisphere is especially adapted for the production and understanding of speech. This is known as
hemispheric specialization
All of the following are predictors of adolescent drug use EXCEPT for
high self-esteem
According to the authors of your textbook, which of the following would be considered a GOOD study strategy?
overlearning
Which represents the correct order of Piaget's stages of intellectual development?
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
Regarding the hippocampus, which of the following statements is FALSE?
The hippocampus tells us when to fear dangerous stimuli.
Sleep spindles usually first appear in NREM Stage __________ sleep.
2
Regarding accommodation, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Accommodation is an important depth cue in driving a car or catching a ball.
Many television viewers are impressed by "psychic mediums" who pretend to communicate with the deceased friends and relatives of audience members. Typically, the viewers will remember the apparent "hits," or correct statements made by the "mediums," while ignoring the "misses," or incorrect statements. This tendency is referred to as
the confirmation bias
As the senses process information, they divide the world into basic stimulus patterns known as
perceptual features.
The decibel is the unit of measurement for
loudness
Montel studies the effects of urban noise, crowding, and the human use of space. Montel is most likely a(n) ________ psychologist.
environmental
The layer of light-sensitive pixels in the digital image sensor of a camera is analogous to the layer of photoreceptors in which area of the eye?
retina
In one study, participants said that a $90 wine tasted better than a $10 wine, although the participants had really tasted the same wine. Interestingly, the participants' functional MRI images showed that the pleasure areas of their brains were more active when they were told they were drinking the "$90 wine." The results of this experiment illustrate that
suggesting the wine was expensive created a perceptual expectancy that it would taste better.
When listening to your professor's lecture, interpreting the meaning of the professor's words is an example of
perception
Regarding perceptual constancies, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Perceptual constancies are based solely on prior experience with no aspect of these constancies being innate.
Four developmental psychologists have been conducting separate research into the patterns of language development of deaf children.They meet in Chicago to discuss, summarize, and, hopefully, interrelate their conclusions from their published works and propose future research on this topic. Within the framework of the scientific method, these psychologists would most likely be
theory building
The rhythms of sleep and waking
are a little over 24 hours long.
Axons leaving the spinal cord
carry sensory and motor messages.
Persons with damage to the primary somatosensory area in the parietal lobes will
lose the feeling of touch in specific areas of the body.
In the auditory system, the first anatomical structure that is set in motion by the sound wave is
the eardrum
Anosmia can be caused by all of the following EXCEPT
a recessive sex-linked trait.
Your instructor has just decided not to give the pop test that was announced at the beginning of class. The class breathes a collective "sigh of relief." This relief is best explained by which nervous system?
parasympathetic
After rushing to catch the bus, when you find a seat and begin to relax, the return to your normal heart rate is under the influence of the
parasympathetic branch
Needles inserted into the body during the acupuncture procedure may relieve pain because the pain
results in the release of neuropeptides.
According to your textbook, which of the following drugs is classified as a narcotic and is addictive?
codeine
If you are sleeping fewer hours than your natural sleep need, then you
are building a sleep debt.
Using which brain tool is X-ray information collected by a computer from a number of different angles and then formed into an image of the brain to reveal the effects of strokes, injuries, tumors, and other brain disorders?
CT scan
According to psychologist Barbara Frederickson, the scope of one's attention is actually broadened by
positive emotions
Which of the following is NOT considered a basic function of the brain?
reordering the genetic code during organogenesis
A preference for using the right or left hand for most activities is referred to as
handedness
Which type of insomnia is caused by worry, stress, or excitement; is characterized by excess mental activity and heightened arousal leading to frustration; and is best dealt with by getting up and doing something useful or satisfying?
temporary insomnia
If you were asked to look at an advertisement of various shops on a city street, and you saw an octopus sitting on a bench near the curb in front of one of the shops, you would most likely
look longer at the octopus because it was an unexpected object
Connie's job as a psychologist involves the use of psychological testing for the vocational counseling of students as well as to detect and treat learning disabilities. Connie is most likely a __________ psychologist.
school
Which of the following statements about B. F. Skinner is FALSE?
Skinner believed that it is important to consider mental events, such as thinking, in explaining why a certain behavior occurs.
Which of the following are features found in paintings, drawings, and photographs that supply information about space, depth, and distance?
pictorial depth cues
Sensory localization means that the sensation experienced depends on the
area of the brain activated.
A recent report found that a significant number of men in their first-year of college think unwanted sexual aggression is acceptable. These men are exhibiting which level of moral development regarding their acceptance of unwanted sexual aggression?
preconventional
On college campuses, drunken students tend to have accidents, get into fights, sexually assault others, or engage in risky sex. They also destroy property and disrupt the lives of students who are trying to sleep or study. These extreme behaviors are due to the drunken students' thinking and perception becoming dulled or shortsighted, a condition known as
alcohol myopia.
Margo is being given a drug that will help reduce the narcotic "rush" she gets from heroin and will make it easier for her to go through withdrawal. The drug she is being given is most likely
methadone.
Scientists implanted an electrode into a specific area of a rat's brain. When the electrode was activated, which in turn activated the target area, the rat aggressively attacked a cat within the same cage. The technique being utilized by the scientists is known as
ESB.
Ernest Hilgard's view of hypnosis as a "split" in awareness is referred to as which theory of hypnosis?
the state theory
According to Erikson, an interest in guiding the next generation provides emotional balance during
middle adulthood
Exercise can promote sleep in all of the following situations EXCEPT when engaging in
strenuous exercise three hours before bedtime.
The brains of persons with schizophrenia are usually smaller than normal, indicating that they have fewer neurons. Thus, according to Toro and Deakin, the key to treating this mental disorder may involve new therapies that promote
neurogenesis.
There is a distinction in Zen between live words and dead words. Dead words are defined as
about a subject.
Meridian Community College has a total of 4,000 students. One hundred of these students are surveyed about the programs offered at the college. These 100 students surveyed would constitute the
representative sample
The separation of sensory information into its important elements is known as
sensory analysis
Terrence, who is left-handed, was born premature with a very low birth weight. According to research, Terrence will have a higher risk of developing which of the following?
allergies and learning disorders
When studying mental disorders, such as depression or anxiety, and the therapies used to treat them, psychologists are more likely to use the ___________ method.
case study
According to your textbook, which of the following is NOT a danger signal indicating that one may have a problem with alcohol?
drinking alcohol for pleasure and to socialize with people
Any major reduction in the amount and variety of sensory stimulation is referred to as
sensory deprivation.
Your dentist's conversation with you about the latest episode of your favorite reality show while he puts in a filling is an example of pain control through
distraction.
Mark has been diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. In order to sort out which of his experiences are perceptions and which are hallucinations, he must engage in
reality testing
The depth cue that occurs when there is an apparent convergence of parallel lines is called
linear perspective
People with insomnia can lower their arousal level before sleep by doing all of the following EXCEPT
engaging in strenuous exercise one to two hours before bedtime.
All the genetic information that passes from the two parents to the child is contained within the nucleus of every cell in that child's body in the form of 46
chromosomes.
A small, shallow flotation tank in which subjects float in body-temperature water in darkness and silence is known as a
sensory-deprivation chamber.
As Karen reads her psychology textbook, the words on the page seem to be focused and then become fuzzy. After an hour of struggling to read her textbook with some of the words in focus and other not, she has developed a severe headache. When her eye doctor examines her eyes, he finds that her lenses are misshapen. Karen has which visual problem?
astigmatism
Concerning temporary sleep deprivation psychosis, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Going without sleep for even 24 hours can lead to temporary sleep-deprivation psychosis.
Tara just spent an hour in a flotation tank where stimuli were restricted. As a result, she is most likely experiencing
deep relaxation.
Derrick is seven months old has begun to use the consonant sounds of b, d, m, and g in combination with vowel sounds, such as saying "ba-ba-ba." Derrick has entered the language stage known as
babbling.
Alice is shown a candle. She can see it, describe it, and even draw it; but she cannot name it. Alice is suffering from
visual agnosia.
A college student has volunteered to tutor students in a first-grade classroom. She hopes to gain a realistic picture of the everyday behavior of these students. However, every time she enters the classroom, the students all stop what they are doing and run up to her begging her to tutor them next. This college student will probably never get a realistic picture of a typical first grader's school day because of the
observer effect.
The most accurate conclusion that can be drawn from research on the brain is that
the activities of both hemispheres of the brain combine to produce most behaviors.
Regarding the use of your dreams, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Using dreams is only helpful for imaginative people in solving problems.
The false-belief task is used to assess whether a child has developed
theory of mind.
We flash a picture of a tree to the right brain of a split-brain patient and a picture of a dog to his left brain. If we ask the split-brain patient to draw what he saw using his left hand (out of sight), he will
draw a tree.
Which part of the limbic system provides a primitive "quick pathway" to the cortex when we are startled, so that we are able to react to dangerous stimuli before we fully know what is going on?
amygdala.
With its emphasis on stimuli and responses, which school of thought helped make psychology a natural science, rather than a branch of philosophy?
behaviorism
Ray awoke one morning to find that he could not see anything in the upper right side of his visual field, his right eye and the right side of his mouth looked different in the mirror, his gait when walking was a bit awkward, and he felt generally "clumsy." Ray is exhibiting
neurological soft signs of a stroke.
Regarding happiness and marital status, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Single people report greater happiness than married people.
At the end of each module in the textbook is a point-by-point summary to help students identify important ideas to remember. These summaries are organized around a component found at the beginning of each module called the
Survey Questions.
A social psychologist measures aggressive responses made by people exposed to violent and nonviolent movies. All of the subjects are tested in rooms having identical room temperature. In this experiment, the room temperature is a(n) __________ variable.
extraneous
Which of the following is NOT a good test-taking suggestion for taking an essay test?
If the question asks for one example, it is better to give several examples in order to gain points.
Ramon frequently tries foods that he normally does not eat and reads political opinions very different from his own. By seeking out these out-of-the ordinary experiences, he hopes to increase his
perceptual accuracy.
The right hemisphere in humans
is involved in recognizing faces and in the expression of emotion.
Since students are more likely to procrastinate if they think a task will be unpleasant, students should
find ways to make every course as interesting as possible by approaching schoolwork as if it were a game or adventure.
When presented with "The Porcupine and the Moles" story, the boys in Gilligan's study tended to use an ethic of
justice
Using your first day handouts from each class, you can make a chart listing the dates of all your tests, reports, and other projects for the semester. You have just constructed a(n)
term schedule.
It is late at night, and David is studying for an exam. David looks up and sees his older brother Jeff standing in his doorway. David speaks to him but gets no response. Jeff's eyes are open but he has a blank expression on his face, and Jeff shuffles his feet rather than walking normally. David follows him back to his room, and Jeff gets back into bed. David has just witnessed an episode of
somnambulism.
Infants have a remarkable capability for rapid learning, which is referred to as __________ intelligence
fluid
Which of the following is NOT a correct match between endocrine gland and hormone?
pancreas-----------corticoids
The blind spot is formed
where the optic nerve leaves the eye.
Within the nucleus of every human cell are 46 thread-like structures that hold the coded instructions of heredity. These 46 structures are called
chromosomes
Teaching primates to communicate in sign language in order to develop better methods for teaching language to aphasic children would be an example of a(n)
animal model.
Questions about the opinions and behavior of large groups of people are often best answered using the __________ method.
survey
The phenomenon in which a prediction prompts people to act in ways that make the prediction come true is known as the
self-fulfilling prophecy.
Which of the following is the best description of a research method?
a systematic process for answering scientific questions
Jose has lost his ability to speak following a stroke, although he is still able to understand words spoken to him. Damage was most likely to
Broca's Area
The segments of weightlessness for the film about astronauts were filmed in the special airplane unofficially nicknamed the "Vomit Comet," which explains what usually happens when this plane goes into its maneuvers to create weightlessness. The problems created by weightlessness are best explained by the __________ theory.
sensory conflict
According to research by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, children in high-quality day care were found to exhibit all of the following EXCEPT
behavior problems that did not exist beforehand.
The use of public polling techniques to answer questions about the opinions and behaviors of large groups of people describes the use of the __________ method.
survey
Jana is an easy baby who smiles and vocalizes frequently, which encourages her parents to smile and talk to her more. This, in turn, causes Jana to smile and interact with her parents more. This illustrates
reciprocal influences
The main function of the neurilemma is to
form a tunnel through which damaged nerve cell fibers grow when they repair themselves.
Regarding taking and using class notes, which of the following statements is FALSE
effective note taking has been shown to increase experimental processing of the course material
Which of the following statements about psychology majors is FALSE?
Psychology majors tend to be emotionally unstable.
Which of the following psychologists wrote an influential book on animal behavior, titled The Animal Mind, and was also the first woman to be awarded a Ph.D. in psychology?
Margaret Washburn
Compared to the adult brain, the brain of a newborn baby has fewer nerve cell branches that receive information, which are called
dendrites
In-depth studies of the brain injuries of Phineas Gage and Michael Melnick are examples of
natural clinical tests.
A researcher asks Zeke, "What do you think would happen if it suddenly became possible for people to fly, like birds, without the aid of airplanes?" Zeke responds that "people can't fly" and does not even consider this hypothetical situation. Zeke is most likely in which stage of cognitive development?
concrete operational
Which type of psychologist would most likely study how the human species went from eating with their fingers to using utensils?
evolutionary
Regarding the decibel rating system for sounds, every 20 decibels has the effect of increasing the sound pressure by a factor of
10
Applied research is best defined as research done
to find solutions to specific problems.
Teachers in one study were told to watch normal elementary school children who had been labeled for the study as "learning disabled," "intellectually disabled," "emotionally disturbed," or "normal." Sadly, the teachers gave the children very different ratings, depending on the labels used. This illustrates the serious consequences of
the observer bias
One of the reasons to study psychology is to
better understand human behavior.
In some cultures, people endure tattooing, stretching, cutting, and burning with little apparent pain. This phenomenon can be explained by
psychological factors, such as anxiety reduction, control, and attention.
While sleeping, you begin to feel as if you are awake during the dream and capable of normal thought. You are experiencing
lucid dreaming.
You offer to trade your nickel for a dime held by a child. The child accepts the trade because the nickel is bigger. The child is
in the preoperational stage.
Brain wave activity during sleep, daydreaming, hypnosis, and other mental states is likely to be studied using a(n)
electroencephalograph.
Regarding the use of time management, which of the following statements is FALSE?
In constructing one's weekly schedule, it is not necessary to label hours in your day that occur regularly, such as meal times and sleep.
Terrence is working on his psychology term paper on "creativity." To find information about his topic, he goes to a specialized online database offered by the American Psychological Association. He searches for his topic by entering the key words with each record in this database consisting of an abstract plus notes about the author, title, and source. This database is known as
PsycINFO.
Critical thinking does NOT involve which of the following questions?
How are the findings related to commonsense beliefs?
Improved research techniques in parapsychology have resulted in
fewer positive results.
The reflex control centers for vital life functions like heart rate and breathing are found in the
medulla.
The brainstem, midbrain, and parts of the forebrain are referred to as the
subcortex.
According to the repair/restorative theory, sleep does all of the following EXCEPT
increase metabolism.
Which of the following is NOT a typical response of people to their own impending death?
obsessive concern with their own health and that of others
A child who does not form a loving bond early in life tends to suffer impairment in their social development. This statement emphasizes the importance of the
sensitive period.
Which type of drug is generally a mild stimulant but with its main effect being to alter sensory impressions?
hallucinogen.