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3-6 Literacy Final Exam
Terms in this set (110)
What are the six language arts?
reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing, visually representing
Which of the six language arts are receptive?
reading, listening, viewing
Which of the six language arts are communicative?
writing, speaking, and visually representing
lacking literacy skills
has literacy skills, but chooses not to use them
The Randolph Caldecott Medal
to the artist of the most distinguished American picture book for children
to the most distinguished contribution to American Literature for Children (author)
The Reading Process
-Activates and builds prior knowledge
- Sets purpose
- Planning for reading (making predictions, preview text, etc)
Teachers scaffold students' reading to teach reading strategies (Fountas & Pinnell, 1996, 2001). Conducted with small groups of students who read at the same level.
Students follow along as the teacher reads a selection aloud (Fisher & Medvic, 2000). Primary-grade teachers often use big books-enlarged versions of the selection-for shared reading (Holdaway, 1979).
Teachers use the interactive read-aloud procedure to share selections that are appropriate for students' interest level but too difficult for them to read by themselves (Barrentine, 1996).
-Transaction between the text and the reader
- Literature response journals
-Focus on instruction
(Studying vocab, genre, author, mini lessons)
Application Projects (visual, writing, reading, talk/drama, technology, social action/authentic)
Reading Skills vs Reading Strategies
Skills are the destination, strategies are the journey
Automatic actions that result in decoding and comprehension with speed, efficiency, and fluency; usually occur without awareness of the components or control involved
Deliberate, goal-directed attempts to control and modify the readers efforts to decode the text, understand words, and construct meaning of the text
-Most basic level
-readers pick out main ideas, sequence details, notice similarities and differences, and identify EXPLICITLY stated reasons
-Readers use knowledge along with information from the text
-Readers use clues from the text, IMPLIED information, and their background knowledge
-Readers make predictions, recognize cause and effect, and determine the authors purpose
-Readers use their own knowledge along with information from the text
-Readers analyze symbolic meanings, distinguish fact from opinion, and draw conclusions
-Readers use their own knowledge along with info from the text
- Most sophisticated level
-Readers assess the value of a text using generally accepted criteria and standards
-Readers detect bias, identify faulty reasoning, determine the effectiveness of persuasive techniques, and judge quality of text
Personal experiences, prior knowledge
Emotions- heated discussions
Thinking, solving problems within prompt
Understanding what is happening, "in your own words...", interpreting
Questions about the book in general
Include background knowledge, strategies while reading, and their engagement during reading (Aspects of reading that are unique to each reader)
Include the author's ideas, the organization of ideas, and the words used to express the ideas (Aspects of the reading controlled by the author and the publisher)
-Pre-reading activities to build students background knowledge
-Authentic experiences, visual representations, artifacts, etc
-Word rich classroom environment
-KWL charts, anticipation guides, etc
-Fluent readers read efficiently
-Word identification strategies, repeated readings, books at instructional reading level
-thoughtful behaviors (or actions) that students use to facilitate their understanding as they read
-cognitive behaviors: involve thinking
-metacognitive behaviors: reflect on thinking
-fiction and non fiction
patterns to organize texts and emphasize the most important ideas (sequence, comparison, cause and effect are non fiction text structures)
conventions and literacy devices to achieve effects in the writing (symbolism and tone in fiction; headings and figures/tables in non fiction; page layout in poetry)
Aspects of Literature Circles
-offer opportunities for differentiation
-Small groups discussions about literature
-Based on the belief that reading is a transactional process as students bring meaning to the text and take meaning from the text
-Collaborative listening, thinking and understanding through dialogue
creates questions/prompts to discuss (who, what, when, where, why, and how)
Identifies interesting passages, guides oral reading
text to text, text to life, makes connections
Illustrator (lit circle role)
creates any type of graphic, painting, drawing or visual representation to describe what has been read
Vocabulary enricher/ word finder
finds words, translates and defines, locates important word choice
Written summary, wraps up discussion with final closure statement
Checks for completion, evaluates participation, monitors discussion for equal participation
stories are narratives about characters trying to overcome problems or deal with difficulties
Passed from generation to generation; began as oral stories
-fables, folktales, myths, legends
-characters are often animals
-characters are one dimensional
-theme is often stated at the end
-extraordinary events (could not happen in today's world)
-main characters are people, personified animals or things
-themes often deal with conflict between good and evil
Lifelike and believable stories; reasonable outcomes; seems truthful
-characters act like real people or real animals
-settings is in the world as we know it
-stories deal with everyday events or relevant subjects
Must also be realistic; details about food, clothing, events, etc. are typical to the era
-setting is historically accurate
-language is appropriate to the era/setting
-theme is universal, both for historical period and today (love, adventure, courage)
Sequence of events involving characters in conflict situations
-between characters and nature
-between characters and society
Beginning, Middle and End
people or personified animals in the story
appearance, action, dialogue, monologue
Where the story takes place
underlying meaning or message of a story
explicit: stated clearly
implicit: must be inferred
1st Person Point of View
story is told through the eyes of one character (I, me, my, we)
the author is godlike, seeing and knowing all. Readers know about the thought process of each character
Used to let readers know the thoughts of one character
readers assume the role of eyewitness and are confined to the immediate scene (whatever is audible and visible) Focus on recounting events, not on character development (fairy tales)
what the strategy does
How to use the strategy
When to use the strategy
the best mix of student-choice and teacher-directed entries. Students will write their opinions on a given book that they are either reading independently or listening to their teacher read aloud.
Double Entry Journals
a unique type of reading log where the pages are divided into two columns, similar to a T Chart. In the left column, students will jot down quotes that they pulled from what they are reading and in the right hand column they reflect upon the quote.
Also known as webs or mind-maps
organizers that students create to help them brainstorm ideas and organize their thoughts before beginning to write.
-used when teachers want to activate students' background knowledge as well as expand their understanding before they begin their reading.
-Teachers will start by giving students a list of words. Students then try to identify on that list the words that they think relate to the topic they will be reading about as well as the words that they think don't belong. Then after reading the text, students will look back and determine whether or not the words that they chose were correct.
In this visual activity, students make quilt squares to extend their comprehension on a story they have read. They cut out construction paper squares, draw pictures in one section and add decorations, and arrange the squares to look like a quilt. Sometimes students copy a quote, record a fact, or write a piece of writing in a section or around the outside of the square.
Students are able to display their work in someway around the classroom- either on their desk, on the walls, or whichever is most convenient and best organized for the project assigned. The students then go around and examine each others' work leaving comments that contain feedback for the creator of the work.
-students will chose one character that they want to become, and fully take on that character, often including a costume or prop.
-other students in the classroom will ask the student questions about their character.
collections of objects and pictures related to a particular story or informational book. After reading a story, students choose or decorate a box and fill it with 3-5 objects and pictures that are significant to the understanding of the story.
- cards which have illustrations from a book on them.
-teacher can decide how she wants her class to do the activity (give out the cards randomly, leave them in an incorrect order at the front of the room and have the students put them in the right order)
-once the students have placed the cards in what they think is the right order, the students will visualize the story and its structure in new ways and closely examine the illustrations.
- grids that students use to organize information about a certain topic.
-used for comparing different versions of a story, recording information about main ideas, and collecting information as a pre-writing activity.
-a study strategy used primarily for informational and content-specific texts. Its main goal is to create a "mental framework" to help students get the most out of a specific text
-Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Relate, Review
notebooks or booklets of paper that students use to record what they have learned over a particular unit. Students can do this by writing questions, summaries and reflections as well as making charts and diagrams.
The Boy in the Striped Pajamas (author and genre)
Limited Point of View
Out of My Mind (author and genre)
Sharon M. Draper
First Person Point of View
4 levels of comprehension
Students reflect upon their own thinking (thinking about thinking)
students reading together in pairs
when the teacher breaks down reading into different parts so students become aware of individual parts and learn how they work together
skills, strategies, and dispositions that we need to adapt and adjust to rapidly changing ICTs (information communication technologies: blogs, email, texts, video conferences)
look like a child's drawing of the sun, where rays reach out from the center of the circle. These are used for brainstorming ideas. Used for brainstorming equivalent ideas.
different hierarchies where ideas are drawn from the center where big ideas are listed for each ray. More rays are then added to complete each big idea.
sketch to stretch
-a visual activity that helps move students beyond literal comprehension of the story they may be reading to thinking more deeply about the characters, theme, and any of the other elements of a story.
-Drawing pictures or diagrams that represent what the story means to them
interactive read aloud
It is the best strategy to use when a teacher reads a book to students. First the teacher introduces the book to help students make connections and activate background knowledge. Next, the teacher will read through briefly. Lastly, the teacher will allow students to respond to the book
-brief teasers teachers or students use to introduce new books and hook students' interest.
-the presenter shows the book, summarizes it without giving away the ending, and reads a short excerpt aloud.
-a strategy that allows students to read their writing works aloud to their classmates.
-The student will sit in a special chair, that is only used for this occasion, and present their writing.
questioning the author
- students ask each other "queries", or questions, to discuss the text while they are reading in order to comprehend.
- used to teach students to ask questions and discuss with their classmates when dissecting ideas in a text.
impromptu opportunities for students to respond to a question or topic, where they write for 5-10 minutes without a focus on revision or editing. Instead, the focus is on ideas, fluency, and reflecting about what they already know.
A literacy strategy in which students work together in small groups to create a book. While making the book they each contribute one page or work with a partner to write a page or section of the book, they then use the writing process as they draft, revise, and edit their pages. Teachers often work with the students during the first bookmaking project in order to introduce the stages of the writing process.
Students use this tool to examine and categorize words according to their meanings, similarities, or spelling patterns. The purpose is to help students focus on conceptual and phonological features of words and identify recurring patterns.
a game where students change one word into another through a series of steps, altering a single letter at each step. The goal is to use as few steps as possible to change the first word into the last words.
William Allen White Award
-Voted by schoolchildren in KS
Bill Martin Jr. Book Award
-Picture book award in KS
Steps of the Writing Process
Purpose of Pre-Writing
getting ready to write
purpose of drafting
getting ideas on paper
purpose of revising
making the writing better
purpose of editing
making the writing correct
purpose of publishing
sharing writing with others
What is the 6+1 traits of writing?
-an assessment instrument that guides instruction
- uses common language year by year
-number one model for scoring writing assessments
What are the 6+1 traits of writing?
- word choice
Description- What is it/ graphic organizer used
-of a topic by listing characteristics, features, or examples
Sequence- What is it/ graphic organizer used
-listing of items or events in numerical order or chronological order
- timeline or list
Comparison- What is it/ graphic organizer used
- explanation of how two things are alike or different
- venn diagram or boxes
Orbis Pictus Award
-Book award for outstanding non-fiction children's literature
Cause and Effect- What is it/ graphic organizer used
-listing of causes and resulting effects
Problem and Solution- What is it/ graphic organizer used
- starting with a problem and one or more solutions
- T-chart, boxes with problem ---> solution
Combination- What is it/ graphic organizer used
a combination of more than one text strategy to share information
- table of contents
- photos and captions
- enlargements/ close-ups
- types of print
- books for further reading
- pairing a non-fiction text and a fiction text on the same topic- or pairing two different genres on the same topic
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