123 terms

APUSH Unit 5 Finished, I guess. lol

Wade-Davis Bill
required 50 percent of the voters in a state to take a loyalty oath and permitted only non-Confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln pocket vetoed the bill.
Freedmen's Bureau
1865, Congress created the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands; acted as an early welfare agency of sorts, providing food, shelter, and medical aid for those made destitute by the war, both blacks and homeless whites; led by General Oliver O. Howard
Black Codes
Laws or "codes" passed in the southern states during Reconstruction that greatly limited the freedom of former slaves.
Radical Republicans
These were a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage and believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
This act pronounced all African Americans to be US citizens (repudiated the Dred Scott decision), and also attempted to provide a legal shield against the operation of the southern states' Black Codes.
Tenure of Office Act
In 1867 this Act was passed which limited the President's power by prohibiting the President from removing civil officers w/o Senate consent. Goal was to bar Johnson from firing Secretary of War Stanton.
This was a Democratic nickname for southern Republicans; former Whigs who were interested in economic development for their state and peace between the sections.
William (Boss) Tweed
He was the boss of the local Democratic party, masterminded dozens of schemes for helping himself and cronies to large chunks of graft; _____ Ring took 200 million from NY taxpayers
Thomas Nast
Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
Horace Greeley
Democratic Presidential Nominee in 1872, editor of NY Tribune; Grant "waved the bloody shirt" and won as the Republican Nominee a second term.
Force Acts
These acts gave power to federal authorities to stop KKK violence and to protect civil rights of citizens in the South.
Amnesty Act of 1872
Pardoned most former Confederates. Almost all white Southerners could vote & hold office.
Stephen A. Douglas
A moderate, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty.
Popular Sovereignty
The doctrine that stated that the people of a territory had the right to decide their own laws by voting. In the Kansas-Nebraska Act, this would decide whether a territory allowed slavery.
36-30' Line
According to the Missouri Compromise (1820), slavery was forbidden in the Louisiana territory north of the a certain latitude. This was nullified by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Bleeding Kansas
aka Kansas Border War. Following the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, pro-slavery forces from Missouri, known as the Border Ruffians, crossed the border into Kansas and terrorized and murdered antislavery settlers. Antislavery sympathizers from Kansas carried out reprisal attacks, the most notorious of which was John Brown's 1856 attack on the settlement at Pottawatomie Creek. The war continued for four years before the antislavery forces won. The violence it generated helped precipitate the Civil War.
John Brown's Raid
In 1859, amilitant abolitionist seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed. What was this called?
Pottawatomie Massacre
John Brown let a part of six in Kansas that killed 5 pro-slavery men. This helped make the Kansas border war a national issue.
Sumner-Brooks Affair
This was an affair whenBrooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him after giving an offensive speech on the Senate floor.
LeCompton Constitution
The pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas' admission to the union supporting the existence of slavery in the proposed state and protected rights of slaveholders. It was rejected by Kansas, making Kansas an eventual free state.
Dred Scott Decision
What decision involved a Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Lincoln-Douglas debates
A series of seven debates. The two argued the important issues of the day like popular sovereignty, the Lecompton Constitution and the Dred Scott decision. One of the two won these debates, but the other's position in these debates helped him win in the 1860 presidential election.
Election of 1860
What election had these candidates: Stephen Douglas (northern Dem.), John C. Beckinridge (southern Dem.), Lincoln (Rep.), John Bell (Constitutional Union)- Lincoln wins.
Republican Party
What party in 1860 had the follow - platform: free soil principles, a protective tariff. Supporters: anti-slavers, business, agriculture. Leaders: William M. Seward, Carl Shulz.
James Buchanan
15th president; bleeding Kansas, John Brown's Raid, Dred Scott Case, South Seceded from Union, took no action- left it for Lincoln
Crittenden Compromise
A desperate measure to prevent the Civil War, offering a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves. Republicans, on the advice of Lincoln, defeated it.
Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri
These were the four states that bordered the North. They were slave states, but did not secede.
Who had these following advantages during the Civil War: Large land areas with long coasts, could afford to lose battles, and could export cotton for money. They were fighting a defensive war and only needed to keep the enemies out of their states to win. Also had the nation's best military leaders, and most of the existing military equipment and supplies.
Who had these following advantages during the Civil War: Larger numbers of troops, superior navy, better transportation, overwhelming financial and industrial reserves to create munitions and supplies, which eventually outstripped the enemy's initial material advantage.
Fort Sumter
First shots of the Civil War took place here in Charleston harbor in South Carolina. It became a symbol of the South's rebellion against the federal government. What Fort was this?
Robert E. Lee
A General for the confederates, fought many battles. One of his main plans towards the end of the civil war was to wait for a new president to come into office to make peace with. Fought Peninsular Campaign, 2nd battle of Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville (with Jackson), and Gettysburg.
Northern blockade
Starting in 1862, the North began to blockade the Southern coast in an attempt to force the South to surrender. The Southern coast was so long that it could not be completely blockaded.
Clement L. Vallandigham
An anti-war Democrat who criticized Lincoln as a dictator, called him "King Abraham". He was arrested and exiled to the South., Prominent Copperhead who was an ex-congressman from Ohio, demanded an end to the war, and was banished to the Confederacy
habeas corpus
Lincoln suspended this writ, which states that a person cannot be arrested without probable cause and must be informed of the charges against him and be given an opportunity to challenge them. Throughout the war, thousands were arrested for disloyal acts. Although the U.S. Supreme Court eventually held the suspension edict to be unconstitutional, by the time the Court acted the Civil War was nearly over.
draft riots
A series of violent disturbances in New York City; were the culmination of discontent with new laws passed by Congress to draft men to fight in the Civil War.
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln publicly announced that he would issue this doucment freeing all enslaved persons in the states still in rebellion after January 1, 1863. It transformed the conflict over preserving the Union into a war of liberation.
Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan
Former Confederate states would be readmitted to the Union if 10% of their citizens took a loyalty oath and the state agreed to ratify the 13th Amendment which outlawed slavery. Not put into effect because Lincoln was assassinated.
Assassination of Lincoln
While sitting in his box at Ford's Theatre watching "Our American Cousin", President Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865.
John Wilkes Booth
Assassin who kills Lincoln in Ford's Theatre
Reconstruction Acts
These acts Pushed through congress over Johnson's veto, it gave radical Republicans complete military control over the South and divided the South into five military zones, each headed by a general with absolute power over his district.
Thaddeus Stevens
Leader of the Radical Republicans in Congress who was devoted to a stringent and punitive Reconstruction effort. Worked towards equality for Southern blacks.
Charles Sumner
Co-Leader of Radial Republicans. The same Senator who had been caned by Brooks in 1856,Hereturned to the Senate after the outbreak of the Civil War. He was the formulator of the state suicide theory, and supporter of emancipation. He was an outspoken radical Republican involved in the impeachment of Andrew Johnson.
Andrew Johnson
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
General Oliver O. Howard
Service as director of the Freedmen's Bureau.
Ku Klux Klan
White-supremacist group formed by six former Confederate officers after the Civil War. Nathaniel Forrest; burned black-owned buildings and flogged and murdered freedmen to keep them from exercising their voting rights. Name is essentially Greek for "Circle of Friends".
13th Amendment
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
14th Amendment
1) Citizenship for African Americans, 2) Repeal of 3/5 Compromise, 3) Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office, 4) Repudiate (reject) confederate debts
15th Amendment
Ratified 1870. One of the "Reconstruction Amendments". Provided that no government in the United States shall prevent a citizen from voting based on the citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Edwin M. Stanton
As Secretary of War, he acted as a spy for the radicals in cabinet meetings. President Johnson asked him to resign in 1867. His dismissal led to the impeachment of Johnson because Johnson had broken the Tenure of Office Law.
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states
the US bought this territory [soon to be state] from the Russians because the Russians wanted to rid of it and the US wanted it for its location
William Seward
Secretary of State who was responsible for purchasing Alaskan Territory from Russia. By purchasing Alaska, he expanded the territory of the country at a reasonable price.
Napoleon III
Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, and elected emperor of France from 1852-1870, he invaded Mexico when the Mexican government couldn't repay loans from French bankers. He sent in an army and set up a new government under Maximillian. He refused Lincoln's request that France withdraw. After the Civil War, the U.S. sent an army to enforce the request and he withdrew.
French viceroy appointed by Napoleon III of France to lead the new government set up in Mexico. After the Civil War, the U.S. invaded and he was executed, a demonstration of the enforcement of the Monroe Doctrine to European powers.
Ulysses S. Grant
U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although he was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.
Sharecropping, Crop Lien System
This provided the necessities for Black farmers. Storekeepers granted credit until the farm was harvested. To protect the creditor, the storekeeper took a mortgage, or lien, on the tenant's share of the crop. At the end of the season the poor people would have to pay a "rent" in crops and most of the time the person would end up in a serious debt that they cannot get out of. The system was abused and uneducated blacks were taken advantage of. The results, for Blacks, was not unlike slavery.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Ablemann v. Booth
This was the case where Sherman Booth was sentenced to prison in a federal court for assisting in a fugitive slave's rescue in Milwaukee. He was released by the Wisconsin Supreme Court on the grounds that the Fugitive Slave Act was unconstitutional. The Supreme Court overturned this ruling. It upheld both the constitutionality of the Fugitive Slave Act and the supremacy of federal government over state government.
Income Tax
Fundraising measure by north that entailed 3% for anyone making over $100. Also in 16th amendment
Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war (plural)
Morill Tariff
his tariff was initially passed in 1861, and subsequently raised several times, to fund the civil war
Civil War
War between the Union and Confederacy from 1861-1865 conflict over the issue of slavery
First Battle of Bull Run
First major battle of the Civil War, in which untrained Northern troops and civilian picnickers fled back to Washington. This battle helped boost Southern morale and made the North realize that this would be a long war.
Monitor v. Merrimack
Battle between two ironclad ships, lasts five days and has no winner but changes the paradigm of naval warfare
Peninsula Campaign and Seven Days battles
General McClellan's plan to attack Richmond from the South by transporting troops, goods, and animals across water to attack
Second Battle of Bull Run
Culmination of offensive campaign by Robert E. Lee, overwhelming victory although Union army weathers it well. This was the Second of the two.
Battle of Antietam
Civil War battle in which the North succeeded in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
Battle of Fredericksburg
Civil war battle in 1862 in Virginia won by the confederacy. Union General Burnside led the union troops to defeat.
Battle of Chancellorsville
The Union was defeated again with the Confederacy being led by Robert E. Lee. General Thomas Stonewall Jackson was accidentally wounded here by one of his own men.
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
Battle of Vicksburg
With a Union victory, the north now controlled the Mississippi River and split the Confederacy in half.
Sherman's March to the Sea
After the burning of Atlanta Georgia on Nov 15 1864, he marched 300 miles to savannah and arrived there December 22nd 1864 with the 1st alabama cavalry regiment.
Appomattox Courthouse
the Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War
a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War
Trent Incident
In 1861 the Confederacy sent emissaries James Mason to Britain and John Slidell to France to lobby for recognition. A Union ship captured both men and took them to Boston as prisonners. The British were angry and Lincoln ordered their release
USS Alabama
American battleship during Civil War from GB; US want $15 million in claims for damages; international review board decides in favor of US
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
Confederate General who told his men to stand their ground during the First Battle of Bullrun leading to a Confederacy victory. He was also the one who got shot by his own men; they were known for being a "wall"
Compromise of 1850
Series of legislation addressing slavery and the boundaries of territories acquired during the Mexican-American War. California was admitted as a free state, Texas received financial compensation for relinquishing claim to lands West of the Rio Grande river, the territory of New Mexico was organized with popular sovereignty, the slave trade was abolished in Washington, D.C., and the Fugitive Slave Law was passed.
California Gold Rush
The movement of great numbers of people to California after gold was discovered there in 1848.
Common Property Doctrine
What was Calhoun's response to the Wilmont Proviso, where he broadened his argument to insist that Congress didn't have a constitutional right to prohibit slavery in the territories. The territories were a common property of all the states (North and South), and slave owners had a constitutional right to the protection of their property wherever they moved.
Omnibus Bill
• During Taylor Administration • Proposed by Henry Clay in congress • Regarding California, New Mexico, Utah, D.C., Texas, South • Fails miserably
The Fugitive Slave Act
A law making it a crime to help runaway slaves. If caught could face up to 6 months in prison and a $1000 dollar fine. Commissioners 10 dollars right slave $5 dollars wrong slave.
Zachary Taylor and Millard Filmore
When President _____________ died, his VP ____________ became President in 1850.
personal liberty laws
The laws were designed to protect free blacks, freedmen, and fugitive slaves by effectively nullifying the Fugitive Slave Law without actually invoking the doctrine of nullification, which is unconstitutional.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
A novel published by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852 which partrayed/ exposed slavery as brutal and immoral
Young America Movement
the confident, manifest destiny spirit of the Americans in the 1850's. Expansionists began to think about transmitting the dynamic, democratic spirit of the US to other countries by aiding revolutionaries, opening up new markets, and annexing foreign lands
Ostend Manifesto
The recommendation that the U.S. offer Spain $20 million for Cuba. It was not carried through in part because the North feared Cuba would become another slave state.
Gadsden Purchase
the purchasing of land from Mexico that completed the continental United States It provided the land needed to build the transcontinental railroad.
Kansas Nebraska Act
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were pro-slavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
Border Ruffians
pro-slavery Missourians who traveled in armed groups to vote in Kansas' election during the mid-1850's, in order to make it a pro-slavery government
The Know Nothings
They had strong anti-immigrant views and anti-catholic feelings. When asked about the organization, members were supposed to reply that they knew nothing. Hence the name.
Republican Party
One of the two major American political parties. It emerged in the 1850s as an antislavery party and consisted of former northern Whigs and antislavery Democrats.
Panic of 1857
Economic downturn caused by overspeculation of western lands, railroads, gold in California, grain. Mostly affected northerners, who called for higher tariffs and free homesteads
Freeport Doctrine
Doctrine developed by Stephen Douglas that said the exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. It was unpopular with Southerners, and thus cost him the election.
Lecompton and Topeka
__________ was the proslavery area in Kansas, and ________ was antislavery area in Kansas
Election of 1852
In this, the Democrats nominated Franklin Pierce, and the Whigs nominated Winfield Scott. Pierce won the presidency because he supported the Compromise of 1850.
dough face
someone from the north with southern sympathy
Perry and Japan
Commodore Matthew Perry went to Japan to open trade between it and the U.S. In 1853, his armed squadron anchored in Tokyo Bay, where the Japanese were so impressed that they signed the Treaty of Kanagania in 1854, which opened Japanese ports to American trade.
Barnburner democrats
antislavery democrats, their defection threatened to destroy the entire democratic party
served as the capital of the Confederate States of America during the vast majority of the American Civil War. It was the target of numerous attempts by the United States Army to seize possession of the capital, finally falling to the Federals in April 1865. Not only was it the seat of political power for the Confederacy, it served as an important source of munitions, armament, weapons, supplies, and manpower for the Confederate States Army.
Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas
These four states seceded from the Union in response to Lincoln's actions involving Fort Sumter
Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, and West Virginia
4 and 1/2 states that Stayed in the union, which gave 45% more popular vote and military manpower, it was also symbolic for pwning the Confederates because they'd be forced to secede.
Eastern Theater
Two major invasions led by Robert E. Lee under this theater @ Battle of Gettysburg and Antietam
Irving McDowell
general ____ ______: commander of Union troops warned Lincoln his troops were not ready for the 1st battle of bull run.
Lincoln's Administration
What president administration had the following cabinet: VP: Hamlin/ Johnson, S of S: Seward, S of T: Chase (soon to be CJ) and S of W: Stanton?
tax in kind
required farmers to give 1/10 of their crops to the government
Homestead Act
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years.
Pacific Railway Act
1862 legislation to encourage the construction of a transcontinental railroad, connecting the West to industries in the Northeast (Union Pacific and Central Pacific RR)
Legal Tender Act
Congress passed the ______________________ that created a national currency and allowed the government to issue paper money
National Banking Act
This act, passed in 1863 to help finance the Union war effort, gave the country a uniform currency. The federal currency soon drove state bank notes out of circulation.
Confederates surprise Union at Tennesee church, one of bloodiest battles, changes strategy for both sides
New Orleans
What battle happened on April 1862 where Farragot seizes A Louisiana city for Union after boldly attacking Southern position. 11 southern ships sunk
54th Massachusetts
The first African American unit to engage in combat by attacking a Confederate fort in South Carolina was the ___regiment.
Sanitary Commission
This was a group of soldiers whose 2 goals: 1. improve the hygienic conditions of army camps and hospitals, 2. recruit and train nurses
Total war
-sherman convinced grant to let him try a bold plan -plan was to let civilians feel the pain of war -union troops destroyed anything usefull to the south
Special field order 15
40 acres and a Mule to slave families
Election of 1864
Lincoln vs George McClellan. Lincoln won easily because Sherman had captured Atlanta.
Reconstruction Act of 1867
law created by Republican-dominated Congress in 1867- Pres. Johnson vetoed but overridden; law established new requirements for Conf. states: divided Conf. states into 5 military districts, troops + commander stationed in each district, state gov'ts write new constitutions that give male blacks voting rights, state gov'ts ratify 14th Amendment
Union League of America
a pro-Union organization that that freedmen turned into a network of political clubs that educated members and campaigned for Rep. candidates. Also built black churches and schools , representing black grievances and offering protection against retaliation from whites.
Mississippi red shirts and rifle clubs
Southern whites who bent around the Force acts by disguising themselves as a rifle club wearing red shirts who meet on election day to intimidate voters from voting republican.
Edmund G. Ross
The Republican senator from Kentucky who was the deciding member in the Impeachment of President Johnson.
Franklin Pierce
14th president of the US; favored the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Wilmot Proviso
Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico