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Gross Anatomy 1

Latissimus dorsi muscle

retracts limb and flexes shoulder

Sternothyroideus muscle

draw larynx and tongue caudally

Sternohyoideus muscle

draw larynx and tongue caudally

Trapezius muscle

lift and abduct forelimb

Omotransversarius muscle

extend limb or flex neck laterally

Brachiocephalicus muscle

extend limb, pulls the head to one side, arches the neck

Superficial pectoral muscle- transverse

Adduct limb

Superficial pectoral muscle- descending

Adduct limb

Rhomboideus muscle

elevate forelimb and draw scapula to trunk

Serratus ventralis muscle

support trunk and depress scapula

Deep pectoral muscle

when limb advanced: pull trunk cranially and extend shoulder
when not weight bearing: draw limb cranially and flex shoulder
adduct limb

Sternocephalicus muscle

draw head and neck to side

Supraspinatus muscle

extend and stabilize shoulder

Infraspinatus muscle

extend or flex shoulder joint
abduct shoulder and rotate laterally

Subscapularis muscle

adduct, extend, and medially stabilize shoulder joint
rotate shoulder medially

Coracobrachialis muscle

adduct, extend, and stabilize shoulder

Deltoideus muscle

flex the shoulder

Teres major muscle

flex shoulder, rotate shoulder medially, and prevent lateral rotation

Teres minor muscle

flex shoulder
rotate shoulder laterally

Long head of triceps brachii muscle

extend elbow and flex shoulder

Lateral head of triceps brachii muscle

extend elbow

Medial head of triceps brachii muscle

extend elbow

Accessory head of triceps brachii muscle

extend elbow

Tensor fascia antebrachii muscle

extend elbow

Anconeus muscle

extend the elbow

Biceps brachii muscle

flex the elbow and extend the shoulder

Brachialis muscle

flex the elbow

Supinator muscle

rotate forearm laterally to supinate paw
flex the elbow

Pronator teres muscle

rotate forearm medially to pronate paw
flex the elbow

Pronator quadratus muscle

pronate the paw

Extensor carpi radialis muscle

extend the carpus

Common digital extensor muscle

extend joints of four principle digits and carpus

Lateral digital extensor muscle

extend carpus and joints of digits 3,4, & 5

Ulnaris lateralis muscle

abduct carpal joint and support carpus

Flexor carpi radialis muscle

flex the carpus

Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle

flex the carpus

Superficial digital flexor muscle

flex the carpal, metocarpophalangeal, and proximal interphalangeal joints (digits 2-5)

Deep digital flexor muscle

flex the carpal and metacarpophalangeal joints and proximal/distal interphalangeal joints of digits

Abductor digit 1 longus muscle

abduct first digit and extend carpal joints

Subclavius muscle

protects the brachial plexus from injury

Omohyoideus muscle

Medial boundary of the jugular groove in the horse

Cutaneous colli muscle

Covers caudal part of jugular groove in horse

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