HSES 330 Exam 1 (Study Guide Chapters 1-4) KU
Terms in this set (71)
What's the difference between an essential and non-essential nutrient?
Essential; must come from external source (diet or supplement) as body can't make on it's own.
Non-Essential; body can manufacture some nutrients from the raw materials of other nutrients
What is the purpose of the Daily Reference Intakes (DRI's)?
DRI's are guidelines for how much of each essential nutrient you should consume each day on an average basis
Name the 6 classes of nutrients and designate which are grouped as macronutrients and micronutrients?
Macronutrients - Fat, Protein, Carbohydrates
Micronutrients - Vitamins, Minerals
Water 6th Nutrient
What are the 2 categories of vitamins?
Fat Soluble & Water Soluble
How are minerals categorized?
Trace Minerals (need less than 100mg)
Major Minerals (need more than 100mg)
Which macronutrient provides fuel to the central nervous system and muscles?
What percentage of the body is made up of water?
What are functional foods?
Substances (chemicals), in addition to the vitamins and minerals in food that provide health benefits by reducing disease risk or promoting good health.
How many calories (per gram) are in each of the macronutrients?
Fat 9g, Protein & Carbohydrates 4g
Calculate the total calories from a food when given the amount of carbohydrate, protein and fat.
290 gm were from carbs which is 1160 calories (290 x 4)
60 gm from fat which is 540 calories (60 x 9)
70 gm from protein which is 280 calories (70 x 4)
That's a total of 1980 calories
Which chronic diseases does obesity increase the chances of acquiring?
Heart Disease, Coronary heart disease and heart attacks, Type 2 diabetes , Cancers (endometrial, breast, and colon) ,Hypertension (high blood pressure), which can lead to a stroke , Sleep apnea and breathing problems, Osteoarthritis
What are the three main reasons for confusion regarding reliable nutrition advice?
Lack of regulation of information and advertising, Potential financial gain, Nutrition is still evolving, we don't have all of the answers and everyone is different (genetically).
How does the DSHEA classify nutritional supplements? What role does the FDA have in regulating supplements?
If classified as drugs would require years of research and millions of dollars to be sold.
If classified as foods would require no prior research to be sold.
THE DSHEA act was thus passed and classified supplements as foods which prevents the FDA from regulating them as heavily as additives or drugs
Dietary supplements can be sold without FDA approval and the FDA must prove a supplement is unsafe before it can be pulled from the shelf
Also means the FDA can't do much if the supplement is ineffective (as long as it's safely ineffective)
The study of diseases in populations
Case Control Study
Researchers compare people who do and those who don't have a particular condition.
Ex. People with diabetes are fat.
Researchers analyze data from a selected group of people (cohort) at intervals over a certain period of time.
Ex. Framingham heart study has followed 5,000 participants over the last 60 years and found those with high cholesterol more likely to have heart attack.
Double Blind Study
Neither researchers nor subjects know which group they're in. Has a experimental group & control group.
placebo (fake) Participant who wasn't receiving treatment but thought they were and reported feeling better.
Name some of the "red flags" when it comes to identifying questionable nutrition advice.
Quick and easy fixes, natural, satisfaction guaranteed, one product does it all, time tested, paranoid accusations, personal testimonials, meaningless medical jargon.
When assessing your disease potential, what is the relationship between your relatives and your risk?
One clue about your genetic susceptibility to disease is your family history
Your risk increases if you have more relatives with diseases
Your risk increases if relationship to relative(s) is closer
highest risk if you have 2 first degree relatives with a specific disease
first degree relative; Mother/father/sibling
higher risk if disease developed in first degree relative before age 50
What are the 2 components of a healthy diet?
Moderation: Appropriate calorie Intake & Balance.
What is the appropriate calorie range for most adults?
What are the recommendations for when combining balance and moderation?
Make choices from all 5 food groups and choose the more nutrient dense option most of the time, understand the recommending portions.
Define nutrient density and empty calories.
Nutrient Density - Comparison of vitamin and mineral content to number of kcals.
Empty Calories - Provides kcals and few to no other nutrients and not filling.
What are 3 tools the government provides to help guide healthy eating?
Dietary Guidelines, Food Labels, & My Healthy Plate
What nutrients are required to be listed on the food label, including the 2 vitamins and 2 minerals?
Only 2 vitamins (A and C) and 2 minerals (calcium and iron) are required on the food label.
In what order are the ingredients listed on food packaging?
Listing ingredients in descending order of predominance by weight means that the ingredient that weighs the most is listed first, and the ingredient that weighs the least is listed last.
What are nutrient claims? Health claims? What are examples of each?
Nutrient Claim - Nutrition content claims are claims about the content of certain nutrients or substances in a food, such as low in fat or good source of calcium.
Ex. Extra lean
Health Claim - Health claims refer to a relationship between a food and health.
Ex. calcium for healthy bones and teeth
List the 5 myplate food groups
Fruits, Vegetables, Grains, Protein, Dairy
List the healthy improvements that can be made to a fast food order?
Avoid/limit fries, regular soda, & fried fish or chicken
Leave off high calorie condiments; mayo and salad dressing & cheese
What are some tips for eating at a restaurant and still maintaining a healthy diet?
Portion sizes are a big issue - get a to-go container immediately and put half in as leftover.
Avoid/limit; heavy cream sauces/soups, fatty meats, get salad dressings on the side (ask for low/no fat), be careful with the bread/butter or chips and salsa that is initially brought to table, high sugar or alcohol beverages, & fried foods.
Chose the vegetable option & start with a salad
Define hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia
Hyperglycemia - high blood glucose levels
Hypoglycemia - low blood glucose levels
Which hormones are responsible for lowering and raising blood glucose levels?
Insulin (Promotes glycogen synthesis. Increases glucose uptake by the cells. Net effect: lowers blood glucose.) & Glucagon (Breakdown glycogen. Net effect: raises blood glucose)
What are the different characteristics between type 1 and type 2 diabetics
Type 1: genetic link (mostly diagnosed for people under 30, with a peak between 10-14 years); caused by an autoimmune disorder causing beta cell destruction, leading to absolute insulin deficiency; insulin injections required along with careful carbohydrate counting and exercise.
Type 2: usually over age 30, most are obese (80%); 90-95% of all cases; non-insulin dependent to start; defective insulin receptors on the cells; over secretion of insulin to compensate, leads to beta cells failure; treatment: medication, diet therapy and exercise.
What are the potential long term complications of diabetes?
Damages the arteries in the kidneys and eyes, Damaging to the nerves (especially in the feet and lower legs), Increases chances of clogged arteries, Overall poor circulation can lead to poor wound healing, severe foot sores and gangrene, which can result in amputations, & Very costly to treat a diabetic.
What is the glycemic index? Describe the relationship between a high glycemic index foods, blood sugars and insulin levels.
The blood glucose response to a given food compared to a standard.
Based on premise that carbohydrate based foods digesting into glucose quickly is not healthy.
Results in temporarily high levels of glucose in bloodstream which causes the pancreas to release large amounts of insulin. The function of insulin is to lower blood sugars.
Identify the various types of foods that are considered carbohydrates.
Pasta, Rice, Bread, Potatoes
Which organ do the monosaccharides travel to after they enter the blood? Which monosaccharide are all other monosaccharides converted into?
The Liver; Glucose
Name the disaccharides and which mono's make up the disaccharides.
Maltose (Glucose + Glucose) = alpha bond
Sucrose (Glucose + Fructose) = alpha bond
Lactose (Galactose + Glucose) = beta bond
What's the difference between glycogen and starch? Name the 2 places the body stores glycogen?
Glycogen: a glycogen molecule contains hundreds of glucose units in long, highly branched chains.
Starch: a starch molecule contains hundreds of glucose molecules in either occasionally branched chains (amylopectin) or unbranched chains (amylose)
Liver and Muscles
What are the general health benefits of fiber and the major food sources?
Promotes softer, larger stool and regularity, Prevents obesity (soluble), Delays gastric emptying (soluble), Slows glucose absorption (soluble), Reduces blood cholesterol (soluble), Reduces hemorrhoids and diverticula (insoluble).
Bread, Cereal, Rice, & Pasta
How much fiber do males/females need daily?
25 g/day for women & 38 g/day for men
What's the difference between intact fiber and isolated fiber?
Intact fiber: found in foods naturally high in fiber like whole grain, fruits and vegetables
Isolated fiber: fibers derived from other starchy foods and added to non-fiber containing foods ot make them higher in fiber.
Explain the digestion of carbohydrate (excluding fiber) in the small intestine.
1 Pancreatic amylase is released which digest further digest starch fragments into disaccharides
2 Disaccharides then broken down into monosaccharies by 3 enzymes released by intestinal cells (maltase, sucrase and lactase)
3 Monosaccharides are absorbed through intestinal cell and into the bloodstream
What are the 3 possible destinations of glucose after entering the liver?
Release glucose back to the bloodstream, Store as glycogen in the liver, & Convert to fat (triglyceride)
What are the functions of carbohydrate?
Supplies energy (cals), Protein sparing, Prevents ketosis, & Sweetener in foods
For a healthy diet, what is the recommendation for % of total calories from carbohydrates and how many grams does that equate to (give the range for both grams and %)?
What are the guidelines for added sugar (in grams per day) for females and males?
Women: 25 grams per day (6 teaspoons) or 100 calories
Men: 38 grams per day (9 teaspoons) or 150 calories
Which foods are better tolerated in lactose intolerant people?
Eat diary with fat, cheese and yogurt is tolerated well and use of lact-aide.
What are the 2 sub categories of sugar substitutes?
Non-caloric (saccharin, aspartame, sucralose, stevia) & Caloric (sugar alcohols).
Name the 4 main non-caloric sugar subs
Saccharin, Aspartame, Splenda & Stevia
How are sugar alcohols listed on the food label?
Sugar alcohols or other carbohydrate
What functions do lipids (fat) serve in the body?
Provide energy, Efficient storage of energy, Insulation and Protection, Transport fat-soluble vitamins, Satiety (slows rate of stomach emptying), Enhances fullness and slower return to hunger, Flavor and mouthfeel, & Health benefits.
What are the four types of fatty acids and what are the 3 ways that the carbon chains can vary?
Saturated Fat, Monounsaturated Fat, Polyunsaturated Fat, Trans-fat (processed fat)
Number of carbons in the chain (Can range from 4-24),The shape of the chain (straight or bent), Extent to which the chain is saturated with hydrogen.
Saturated = no double bonds
Monounsaturated = 1 double bond
Polyunsaturated = 2 or more
What's the structural difference (chemically speaking) between a saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid? Name food sources for each.
Single Carbon Bond - Saturated fatty acid
Food Source - Animal products like butter, cheese, whole milk, ice cream, cream and fatty meats and oils.
One Double Bond - Monounsaturated fatty acid
Olive/canola/peanut/sesame oil, Almonds, peanuts, PB, nuts, avocado.
Which 2 polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential?
What is hydrogenation? Why is it done to fat found in foods?
Formation of TRANS FATTY ACID; Addition of hydrogens to C=C double bonds.Process used to solidify an oil.
Generally improves food product taste & texture lengthens shelf life.
What are the possible health benefits of omega 3's, and what is the daily recommended intake?
Decrease blood clotting --> reduce risk of <3 attack
(excessive intake can thin blood and cause hemorrhagic stroke)
Reduced blood pressure + triglycerides
May help lessen depressive symptoms
May lower risk of some cancers
Prevent macular degeneration
Explain how fat is digested once entering the small intestine (including enzymes and hormones involved)
Primary site of fat absorption (~95% of fat consumed is absorbed)
CCK (hormone) stimulates the release of BILE and LECITHIN to help emulsify fat
CCK stimulates pancreas to release PANCREATIC LIPASE (enzyme)
Fat is brown down to MONOGLYCERIDES, free FATTY ACIDS and GLYCEROL
Describe the transportation of digested fat (fat from food), starting with formation of chylomicron in the lymphatic system to the chylomicron remnant deposit in the liver.
Digested fat re-formed into triglycerides
Packaged into CHYLOMICRONS then travel from LYMPHATIC SYSTEM -> blood -> fat cells
Lipoprotein lipase on fat cell breaks triglycerides in the chylomicrons
Describe the transportation of synthesized fat, starting with VLDL and ending with the
receptor pathway and scavenger pathway?
Fat and cholesterol primarily made in liver, then packaged in VLDL
Progresses from Very Low Density Lipoprotein --> IDL --> LDL
Receptor + scavenger pathway for cholesterol uptake.
Which pathway (receptor vs. scavenger) contributes to plaque formation and clogged
What are the characteristics and functions of cholesterol in the body?
Essential component of cell membrane
Forms important hormones (Estrogen, testosterone, vitamin D)
Precursor to bile acids.
40-60% of cholesterol in food is absorbed
Body makes ample amount (produced by liver, found only in animal products).
What is atherosclerosis and arteries in which part of the body are most susceptible?
Plaque build up in arteries; generally takes years to develop and can begin in childhood.
Heart and brain; though arteries in the kidneys, legs and feet are susceptible.
Define myocardial infarction and stroke?
Heart attack - blood flow to heart is blocked. Stroke -Blow flow to brain is blocked
Why is it beneficial to have a high HDL level?
HDL = good cholesterol; reduces plaque build up
Picks up cholesterol from dying cells and other sources and transfers back to liver
Also prevents LDL from going through oxidation
What should blood levels for overall cholesterol, LDL and HDL levels be? (aka lab values or lipid profile)?
Cholesterol - 200 or lower
LDL - 130 lower
HDL - men: 40 or higher; women: 50 or higher
What diet measures can be taken to reduce risk of atherosclerosis?
Reduce SATURATED and TRANS fat
Increase dietary FIBER
Lower glycemic load foods
Caloric intake to maintain healthy weight
What are the daily recommendations (as grams per day) for saturated fat + trans fat?
20-30 g per day - No more than 10% of total cals.
Why are antioxidants potentially helpful in preventing plaque build-up in arteries?
May prevent plaque buildup from LDL via the scavenger pathway
Help prevent the oxidation of LDL - LDL more atherogenic when altered chemically through oxidation
What impact does exercise have on reducing risk of atherosclerosis?
Retards plaque buildup
Increases vascularity of heart
Improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity
Aids in weight loss and lowering blood pressure
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