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manifest destiny

belief that the US had to extend its power and civilization across North America


a northern frontier province of Mexico. caused a war between Mexico and the US because there were disputes over whose land it was and the border of it

Stephen Austin

the son of Moses Austin. brought 300 families into Texas beginning a steady migration of American settlers

Santa Anna

made himself dictator o Mexico and abolished its federal system. He insisted on enformcing Mexico's laws which caused Texas to revolt

sam Houston

led the Battle of the San Jacino River where he caught Mexicans by surprise and captured Santa Anna


where the Mexican army in San Antonio led by santa anna attacked and killed every American defender

john tyler

southern whig who was worried about Britain influence on Texas. so he tried to annex it but was denied by the senate

Aroostook war

"battle of the maps" conflict between rival groups of lumberman on the Maine- Canadian border

Webster ashburton treaty

1842. Made by Daniel Webster and Lord Alexander Ashburton which split the disputed territory between Maine and British Canada

Oregon territory

vast territory on the pacific coast that originally stretched as far North as the Alaskan border. was claimed by Russia, Spain, US, and Britain

54 40 or fight

line of latitude that marked the border between Oregon territory and Russian Alaska referred to by western and southern expansionists

james k polk

democratic "dark horse" who was the winner of the election of 1844

rio grande

Mexican government insisted that the Texas border was on the Nueces River but the Us wanted it farther south along the ________

Mexican war

1846- 1847. most of thwas fought on Mexican territory by small American armies. the cause was the Mexican army killing 11 Americans. after fall of mexico city the government agreed to agree to US terms

Zachary taylor

his force of 6000 men drove Mexican army from texas, went in northern mexico, and won a major victory at Buena vista

Stephen Kearney

leading a force of 1500 he succeeded in taking Santa Fe, the New Mexico Territory, and southern california

Winfield scott

with army of 14000 he took coastal city of Vera Cruz and then captured mexico city

john c fremont

quickly overthrew Mexican rule in northern California and proclaimed California to be independent


by fremont it was declared to be an independent republic with a bear on its flag

treaty of Guadalupe hidalgo

1848. caused the Mexican cession and made Mexico recognize the Rio Grande as the southern border of texas

Mexican cession

US took the possession of California and New Mexico

Wilmont Proviso

appropiations bill that forbid slavery from any new territory from Mexico. was defeated in senate

franklin pierce

elected to presidency in 1852. adopted prosouthern policies and dispatched 3 American diplomats to secretly negotiate to buy cuba from spain

Ostend manifesto

when 3 American diplomats in Ostend,belgium drew up this document to try to buy Cuba from spain secretly

walker expedition

leading a force of southerners William walker took over Nicaragua in 1855.

clayton bulwer treaty

1850. neither the US or Great Britain would attempt to take exclusive control of any future canal route in Central America

gasden purchase

1853. President Pierce added a strip of land from the American south west for a railroad

great American desert

arid area between the Mississippi valley and the pacific coast

mountain men

fur traders that were the earliest nonnative group to open the far west

far west

mostly California and Oregon territory

overland trails

Oregon, California, santa anna, and Mormon trails. began in Missouri or iowa, followed river valleys through great plains, then reached foothills of rockies or southwestern deserts, then mountain passes of sierras and cascades. had threat of indian attack, disease, and depression

mining frontier

gold rushes in California, Colorado, Nevada, and Black Hills of the Dakotas. brought a lot of men that would make mining camps and towns

gold rush

In California, Colorado, Nevada, and Black Hills of Dakotas

farming frontier

middle class pioneer families started homesteads and began farming. rural communities soon developed

urban frontier

cities arose from railroads or gold and silver rushes

industrial technology

new factories produced shoes, sewing machines, ready- to- wear clothing, firearms... industrialization spread to other states in northeast

elias howe

invented the sewing machine. took production of clothing out of the home and into the factory

Samuel f b morse

invented electric telegraoh that sped up communication across the country


Americas largest industry. across northeast and Midwest. us government gave 2.6 million acres of fed land to build Illinois central railroad

foreign commerce

manufactured goods with western grains and southern cotton, sailing packets on regular schedule, whale oil- whaling boom with English merchants, improvements in designs of ships, steamships

matthew c perry

was sent by the fed govt to japan to persuade that country to open up its ports to trade with americans

panic of 1857

affected Midwestern farmers and increased unemployment in northern cities but south was fine. made south think their economy was better

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