42 terms

APUSH chapter 12 terms

manifest destiny
belief that the US had to extend its power and civilization across North America
a northern frontier province of Mexico. caused a war between Mexico and the US because there were disputes over whose land it was and the border of it
Stephen Austin
the son of Moses Austin. brought 300 families into Texas beginning a steady migration of American settlers
Santa Anna
made himself dictator o Mexico and abolished its federal system. He insisted on enformcing Mexico's laws which caused Texas to revolt
sam Houston
led the Battle of the San Jacino River where he caught Mexicans by surprise and captured Santa Anna
where the Mexican army in San Antonio led by santa anna attacked and killed every American defender
john tyler
southern whig who was worried about Britain influence on Texas. so he tried to annex it but was denied by the senate
Aroostook war
"battle of the maps" conflict between rival groups of lumberman on the Maine- Canadian border
Webster ashburton treaty
1842. Made by Daniel Webster and Lord Alexander Ashburton which split the disputed territory between Maine and British Canada
Oregon territory
vast territory on the pacific coast that originally stretched as far North as the Alaskan border. was claimed by Russia, Spain, US, and Britain
54 40 or fight
line of latitude that marked the border between Oregon territory and Russian Alaska referred to by western and southern expansionists
james k polk
democratic "dark horse" who was the winner of the election of 1844
rio grande
Mexican government insisted that the Texas border was on the Nueces River but the Us wanted it farther south along the ________
Mexican war
1846- 1847. most of thwas fought on Mexican territory by small American armies. the cause was the Mexican army killing 11 Americans. after fall of mexico city the government agreed to agree to US terms
Zachary taylor
his force of 6000 men drove Mexican army from texas, went in northern mexico, and won a major victory at Buena vista
Stephen Kearney
leading a force of 1500 he succeeded in taking Santa Fe, the New Mexico Territory, and southern california
Winfield scott
with army of 14000 he took coastal city of Vera Cruz and then captured mexico city
john c fremont
quickly overthrew Mexican rule in northern California and proclaimed California to be independent
by fremont it was declared to be an independent republic with a bear on its flag
treaty of Guadalupe hidalgo
1848. caused the Mexican cession and made Mexico recognize the Rio Grande as the southern border of texas
Mexican cession
US took the possession of California and New Mexico
Wilmont Proviso
appropiations bill that forbid slavery from any new territory from Mexico. was defeated in senate
franklin pierce
elected to presidency in 1852. adopted prosouthern policies and dispatched 3 American diplomats to secretly negotiate to buy cuba from spain
Ostend manifesto
when 3 American diplomats in Ostend,belgium drew up this document to try to buy Cuba from spain secretly
walker expedition
leading a force of southerners William walker took over Nicaragua in 1855.
clayton bulwer treaty
1850. neither the US or Great Britain would attempt to take exclusive control of any future canal route in Central America
gasden purchase
1853. President Pierce added a strip of land from the American south west for a railroad
great American desert
arid area between the Mississippi valley and the pacific coast
mountain men
fur traders that were the earliest nonnative group to open the far west
far west
mostly California and Oregon territory
overland trails
Oregon, California, santa anna, and Mormon trails. began in Missouri or iowa, followed river valleys through great plains, then reached foothills of rockies or southwestern deserts, then mountain passes of sierras and cascades. had threat of indian attack, disease, and depression
mining frontier
gold rushes in California, Colorado, Nevada, and Black Hills of the Dakotas. brought a lot of men that would make mining camps and towns
gold rush
In California, Colorado, Nevada, and Black Hills of Dakotas
farming frontier
middle class pioneer families started homesteads and began farming. rural communities soon developed
urban frontier
cities arose from railroads or gold and silver rushes
industrial technology
new factories produced shoes, sewing machines, ready- to- wear clothing, firearms... industrialization spread to other states in northeast
elias howe
invented the sewing machine. took production of clothing out of the home and into the factory
Samuel f b morse
invented electric telegraoh that sped up communication across the country
Americas largest industry. across northeast and Midwest. us government gave 2.6 million acres of fed land to build Illinois central railroad
foreign commerce
manufactured goods with western grains and southern cotton, sailing packets on regular schedule, whale oil- whaling boom with English merchants, improvements in designs of ships, steamships
matthew c perry
was sent by the fed govt to japan to persuade that country to open up its ports to trade with americans
panic of 1857
affected Midwestern farmers and increased unemployment in northern cities but south was fine. made south think their economy was better