Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Exam 2 (Individual)
Terms in this set (72)
How does CBT differ from traditional talk therapy?
CBT focuses on changing behavior rather than trying to find the root of anxiety
What is the relationship between thoughts, behaviors and emotions in CBT?
Bad thoughts create bad emotions which create bad behavior
If you were a CBT therapist working with an anxious child, what would be the components of your intervention?
Hierarchy of fear
Why is it helpful to expose people to things they fear?
they no longer fear it, time makes things less scary and so does exposure
Does research support this treatment?
Yes it does
How does ACT (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy) generally differ from the traditional cognitive therapy approach?
You accept your thoughts rather than try to change them
Is there any research supporting ACT with depressed people, psychotics, and drug addicts? How did they change?
drug addicts: worked better than nicotine patches
Taught them to accept their behavior which allowed them to change
What are the criticisms of CBT (in the article, and your own)?
-accepting bad thoughts are not always good
-he believes its the only way (one size fits all?)
-He has done majority of the research
What is the fundamental difference between positive psychotherapy and traditional approaches?
increases positive emotion/engagement rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms
Which exercises worked best in the pilot study? What was the placebo activity?
-gratitude visit, 3 blessings exercise, "use your strengths" exercise -placebo: require patients to record earliest memories each night
What were the three components ("scientifically manageable components") of happiness, on which PPT exercises represent? Briefly describe each of them.
Pleasant Life: Positive emotion in past present and future
engagement and involvement in work, realtions and lesiure
Meaingful Life: religion politics community
Describe Csikszentmihalyi's concept of "flow."
getting really involved in something and you go into this flow of happiness and positivity
How did study one differ from study 2
Study One: Mildly to moderately depressive symptoms Study Two: Unipolar depression
Describe some of the exercises utilized in PPT
-three good things exercise (ruminate on the good things) -the gratitude visit (shift memories to good things) -improves flow -increase general awareness of strenghts
Summarize the results of the two studies.
Both decreased depression signficantly
Do "nonspecifics" have a place in PPT?
Yes, they enhance therapy's effects
Seligman admits that there were limitations to these studies. Name a few of them.
small samples, university or professional students
How easily do addicts change? How likely is a smoking cessation program to work for at least a year?
2. How is the transtheoretical model different than approaches traditionally associated with addictions treatment?
Focuses on intentional change rather than other pressures from the outside world to change
Describe what's happening in each stage of change in this model, and be able to distinguish between them.
Precontemplation: individual does not recognize problem Contemplation: Considers problem/cahnge Preperation commitment to change Action Stage: imppliment plan Matience stage: Modifying lifestyle to avoid relaspe
About how long does "action" last for addicts? In which stages does detoxification occur?
Action stage lasts 3-6 months (action stage)
Is there any research to support this model? In addition to addictions, for what other health-related behaviors has the model been successful?
Yes there is quite a lot of research supporting this. It is also helpful with exercise, mammograms, respirator, dietary and fat intake
What were the major outcomes of the 2005 study by Wampold and Brown, published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology?
clients age gender and diagnosis had no impact on the sucess rate and neither did the experience training and theoretical orientation of therapists. clients of best rated therapists did much better. clients did better w meds if the therapist was good than if he or she was bad
What did Ericsson have to say about how people become "the best of the best?"
They are evaluated and have great connections with their clients. They are extremely empathetic
In Hiatt and Hargrave's study, did the most ineffective therapists know they were ineffective? Why do you think this is?
No they did not-they were not asking for evaluations to do better and already assumed they were the best
Do therapists typically get more effective through the years, as they gain experience? Has psychotherapy in general improved much in the past 30 years?
Yes but the field has stagnated
What is the three-step "basic formula" for success advocated by these authors?
1. think (setup a plan) 2. Act (follow a plan) 3. Reflect (review details)
Does knowing your baseline performance matter, in therapy? Do the authors advocate sharing it with your clients? Explain.
Yes and yes, this allows you to improve so you know what to do
Why do you think Dawn's interaction with the grieving client changed his mind about coming back to therapy?
related to the client, she truly cared she was empathetic
Some gastroenterologists were found to be 10 times better at detecting polyps than others. What were they doing differently than the less successful doctors? How does this story relate to the theme of this article?
More thorough evaluations--> Taking more time makes more sense and will improve perfromance
Distinguish between efficacy studies and effectiveness studies. Which type of study is typically considered to be the gold standard in research validating psychotherapies, and why?
Efficacy studies are more popular because they control for outside influencers. Efficacy studies: contrasts therapy to a comparison group under well controlled conditions Effectiveness studies: more realistic and under different real world circumstances
What is meant by non-specifics, mentioned at the bottom of the first page? (This is an important concept in clinical/counseling research.)
Building rapore, being empathetic, stuff across the board of psychology
What important elements of some psychotherapies done "in the real world" are not represented in efficacy studies? How does this affect perceptions of therapeutic validity?
-fixed duration -self correcting -patients are there through active shopping -mutiple diagnosis -imporvement of general functioning
Describe the Consumer Reports study. Who were the respondents? What were they asked? Do you think the questions regarding therapeutic effectiveness yielded valid responses?
Respondents were people who read consumer resports and are highly educated, middle class, 50% women, 46. general broad questions about specific imporvement, satisfaction, global improvement
Describe the results of the survey. Do any of the findings surprise you, as they did the author?
-usually works -long term > short term -no difference between therapy and therapy w medication -more sucessful thank marriage counselors -active clients did better
Why do you think marriage counselors were perceived as less effective than psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers?
-more people and people tend to go too late
Does the "dodo bird" hypothesis come as a "rude shock" to you as it has to many clinical researchers?
Describe some of the methodological virtues and flaws of the CR study.
Real and faced real world problems -things were not stated very well, interpretation was left to the people, no control gorup
What is meant by "clinical significance," and how does it differ from "statistical significance?" What is the author's belief about the clinical significance of the CR study?
clinical- more human deals with the actually significane of this in the real world statistical-more with numbers and control groups. Says that it helped
What are some of the author's suggestions for improving the survey in a study like this?
prospective, well normed questions, increased sensitivity
What do you think of the author's explanation about why psychotherapy plus medication didn't result in better outcomes than psychotherapy alone?
What does the author conclude about the issue of random assignment? Do you agree?
Doesn't like it
Regarding the 2006 survey by Boisvert and Faust, how did psychological researchers and practicing psychotherapists differ in their response to the question about whether all therapies achieve similar outcomes?
Researchers: Agreed all therapies achieve similar outcomes
Therapists: disagreed less that therapies achieve similar outcomes
Explain what is meant by the "Dodo Bird verdict" and when it was introduced.
All therapies are created equivalent in their effects (1936)
Describe the criteria Wampold used for "bona fide" treatments in his large 1997 meta-analysis. What was the general result of that study?
treatments delivered by trained therapists based on sound psychological principles and described in publications
The authors state that effective treatments might have similar outcomes because they include similar features. What might be some similar features of effective therapies?
theoretical rational, therepuetic rituals, setting, alleviation of distress
For what disorders do behavior and cognitive-behavior therapies seem effective?
Anxiety and childhood depression and behavioral problems
After reading this article, how would you answer the question posed by the title? Are all psychotherapies created equal?
No but they are very similiar
Psychoanalytic/Psycho dynamic Theory
Repressed unconcious conflicts needs fears drive behavior
-Therapy:therapists interpretations provide insight
-Methods: free association, lying on a cough, insight oriented therapy
-general life energy
-a collective unconscious
Therapy: insight and transformation into wholeness
Ivan Pavlov (association/classical conditioning)
Skinner (skinner box operant conditioning)
Bandura (observational learning, bobo dolls)
Therapist is a teacher (unlearn behavior, relearn new behavior)
ABCS: activating event, belief, consequences
disturb ourselves with irrational thinking
challenge and change irrational thinking
Rogers and Maslow
healthiest when authentic and working towards best version of themselves
active listening, genuine acceptance, positive regard
non directive therapy
avoiding non being: meaningful life is authentic
greater the death anxiety the stronger the avoidance behavior
help client find meaning and authenticity, take responsibility
Authenticity comes from awareness in here and now
psychodrama, acting out situations
the empty chair
be aware and non judgemental of one's own emotions, thoughts
willing to feel and accept emotion
acceptance of negative thoughts
commit to living according to values (pyramids of values)
dialectical behavior therapy
high emotional sensitivity and invalidating environment= emotional dysregulation
(validating emotions, validate primary emotion, block judgement, opposite action to emotion, reinforce skill use)
examine teach and encourage
pleasure, engagements, meaning
(added relationships and achievement now)
assign activities with positivity
Doctor Phil Approach
direct confrontational quick fixes
concern with empathy, public monitoring, not much research resistance oversimplified solutions
helps clients rewrite their story
change the way you say it, may influence perception
therapeutic relationship is a "lab" for understanding other relationships
practice in therapy things you can use in the world
Computer based approach
more accessibility but can cost confidentiality
female, high education, divorced, white, 35-44
Predictors of tx effectiveness
severity of symptoms, readiness for change, extra therapeutic factors, clients expectations of success, self efficacy, client has specific goals, active motivation
Gender, not much effect slight advantage w females
Age: slight advantage for therapist slightly older
Personal experience with problem: NA unless the client perceives it as important to alliance
combines CBT with rhythmic stimulation
eye movements unblock distressing experiences and release them
Family Systems Theory
multigenerational patterns, family roles, interdependence and differentiation
Therapy: healthy interdependence, address reactions to others' needs expectations distress
Therapy: who is expert, empowerment, egalitarian relationships, self disclosure and the spirit of mutualitiy
Does experience as a therapist matter
no, most gains are early on, they become more confident over time
Does theoretical orientation matter
is there a universal personality style
not that researchers can find but they must be able to build an alliance
Other things that matter
facilitating interpersonal skills, ability to build rapport, warmth gentleness, ability to identify and read emotion, verbal fluency
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
HOUGHTON MIFFLIN HARCOURT
A Concise Introduction To Logic Aplia 1 Term Printed Access Card
Patrick J. Hurley
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Sets with similar terms
PSY210 Exam 2
AP PSYCH 7
more nace 9
Psc 165 Final
Sets found in the same folder
Psy of Individual Exam 1
Chem Exam 4
Other sets by this creator
CLEP American Government
Soc 301 Exam 1
Crime Vic Exam 3