35 terms

Cancer and Meiosis

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What is cancer?
A disease in which cells grow and divide uncontrollably, damaging the parts of the body around them
What does the word "cancer" mean in Latin?
Crab
Is there only one type of cancer?
No, there are many types of cancer
What is an example of cancer?
Skin cancer
How is a type of cancer usually named?
By the place in the body it started
What is the leading cause of cancer deaths in both women and men?
Lung cancer
How does cancer begin?
When something damages a portion of the DNA in a chromosome
What does the damage in a cell's DNA cause?
It causes a change in the DNA
What is the change in DNA called?
Mutation
What does DNA contain?
All of the instructions necessary for life
What does damage to the DNA cause?
It causes the cell to function abnormally
Do cells that go through the cell cycle divide in a controlled way?
Yes
How does cancer begin?
When mutations disrupt the normal cell cycle, causing cells to divide in an uncontrolled way
What happens without normal controls on the cell cycle?
The cells grow too large and divide often
What happens in the beginning when cancer cells start dividing?
One cell develops in an abnormal way
What happens as the cancer cells continue to divide?
Repeated divisions produce more and more mutated cells
What do all of the cancer cells begin to form after a period of time?
A tumor
What is a tumor?
A mass of abnormal cells that develops when cancerous cells divide and grow uncontrollably
About how long does it take for a tumor to grow to a noticeable size?
A few years
What happens as the tumor is forming and getting bigger?
The cells become more and more abnormal as they continue to divide
How does cancer spread to other parts of the body?
Some cancerous cells may break off the tumor and enter the bloodstream
What are the three treatments that can be used to treat cancer?
Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy
What is the best treatment to use before the cancer cells spread to other parts of the body?
Surgery
What are ways to prevent cancer?
By avoiding smoking, eating a healthful diet, and protecting your skin from bright sunlight
How are most skin cancers caused?
Ultraviolet light
What are the six things that cause cancer?
Sun, smoking, radio activity, unhealthy foods, genetics, age
What is a mutation?
A change in DNA
What can a mutation prevent from happening?
apoptosis and contact inhibition
What is apoptosis?
When cells digest themselves
What is contact inhibition?
Cells come into contact with each other and stop dividing because they are inhibited by the space available
Do cancer cells have cell inhibition?
Cancer cells will continue dividing even after coming into contact with other cells
What does the prevention of contact inhibition result in?
A tumor
What is a benign tumor?
A safe tumor
What is a malignant tumor?
A harmful tumor
What is metastasis?
When cells break off the tumor and enter the blood stream and spread to other parts of the body