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Medical Terminology Chp 4 - The Muscular System

Muscles (Muscul/o, My/o, Myos/o)

Make body movement possible, hold body erect, move body fluids, and produce body heat.

Fascia (fasci/o)

Cover, support, and separate muscles.

Tendons (ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o)

Attach muscles to bones


prefix meaning two, twice, double


suffix meaning hernia, swelling, protrusion


bad, difficult, painful


fiber, fibrous tissue


state, condition


pertaining to


movement, motion


combining form for muscle


paralysis (loss or impairment of the ability to move parts of the body)


to rupture


order; coordination


tendon, stretch out, extend, strain


tone or tension


three, triple


(physiology) moving of a body part away from the central axis of the body


(physiology) moving of a body part toward the central axis of the body


a fibrous band of scar tissue that binds together normally separate anatomical structures


Inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary movements, resulting in shaky/tremor-like movements


lacking normal muscle tone or strength


Any weakening or degeneration (especially through lack of use)


abnormally slow movement

carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)

a disorder caused by compression of a nerve in the carpal tunnel (where the nerve passes through the wrist)

chronic fatigue syndrome

a disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems


circular movement of joint, combining movements; possible in shoulder joint, hip joint, and trunk around a fixing point


the permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced with nonelastic fibrous tissues


bending of the foot or the toes upward


abnormality in performing voluntary muscle movements


difficulty in controlling voluntary movement


a condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement


a diagnostic test that measures the electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation

electroneuromyography (EMG)

a diagnostic procedure for testing and recording neuromuscular activity by the electric stimulation of the nerve trunk that carries fibers to and from the muscle


inflammation of the tissues around the elbow; golfer or tennis elbow


The study of workplace equipment design or how to arrange and design devices, machines, or workspace so that people and things interact safely and most efficiently.

exercise physiologist

a specialist who works under the supervision of a physician to develop, implement, and coordinate exercise programs, and administer medical tests to promote physical fitness


inflammation of the fascia; fascia is a connective tissue that surrounds muscles, groups of muscles, blood vessels, and nerves, binding those structures together in much the same manner as plastic wrap can be used to hold the contents of sandwiches together

fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS)

a debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue, diffuse and or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain, and a wide range of other symptoms

ganglion cyst

a harmless fluid-filled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist.

heel spur

Is a calcium deposit in the plantar fascia near its attachment to the calcaneus (heel) bone that can be one of the causes of plantar fasciitis


slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body

hemiplegia (Hemi)

total paralysis affecting only one side of the body


abnormally increased muscle function or activity


condition of excessive tone of the skeletal muscles


abnormally decreased muscle function or activity


a condition in which there is diminished tone of the skeletal muscles

impingement syndrome (IS)

occurs when the tendons become inflamed and get caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint.

intermittent claudication (IC)

characterized by leg pain and weakness brought on by walking, with the disappearance of the symptoms following a brief rest

muscular dystrophy (MD)

group of inherited muscle disorders that cause muscle weakness without affecting the nervous system

myasthenia gravis (MG)

a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles


the herniation of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it


the sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles

myofascial release

a specialized soft tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of conditions such as fibromyalgia, myofascial pain syndrome, movement restrictions, temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJ), and carpal tunnel syndrome


degeneration of muscle tissue


weakness or partial paralysis of a muscle


surgical suturing of a muscle wound


a neuromuscular disorder characterized by the slow relaxation of the muscles after a voluntary contraction

nocturnal myoclonus

jerking of the limbs that can occur normally as a person is falling asleep


a diagonally arranged abdominal muscle on either side of the torso


the loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements in a muscle through disease or injury to its nerve supply


paralysis from the waist down caused by damage to the lower level of the spinal cord


a physician who specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation with the focus on restoring function

plantar faciitis

an inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole of the foot. this condition causes foot or heel pain when walking or running

polymyositis (PM)

a muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body


rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face downward

quadriplegia (Quad)

paralysis of both arms and both legs


the loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that comes with aging

shin splint

is a painful condition caused by the muscle tearing away from the tibia (shin bone)


an involuntary contraction of the diaphragm followed by rapid closure of the glottis (hiccup)

spasmodic torticollis

(wryneck) a stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side


circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening


a painful injury to a joint caused by a sudden wrenching of its ligaments


surgical suturing of the end of a tendon to a bone


pain in a tendon


to free a tendon from adhesions


surgical suturing together of the divided ends of a tendon


decreases an angle, as in bending a joint. During flexion, the knee or elbow are bent.


Raising a body part


Turns a bone on its axis


Turns the palm of the hand upward or forward


increases an angle, as in straightening a joint.
During extension, the knee or elbow are straightened


lowers a body part. During depression,
the depressor anguli oris lowers the corner of the mouth in a frown.

Planter flexion

bends the foot downward at the ankle


which is the less moveable attachment, is
the place where the muscle begins. The origin is located nearest the midline


which is the more moveable attachment,
is the place where the muscle ends by attaching to a bone or tendon


is a physician who specializes in treating the causes of paralysis and similar muscular disorders in which there is a loss of function.


a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and disorders such as osteoporosis, fibromyalgia and tendonitis that are characterized by inflammation in the joints and connective tissues

Repetitive Stress Disorder (RSD)

also known as repetitive motion disorders, are a variety of muscular conditions that result from repeated motions performed in the course of normal work, daily activities, or recreation such as sports



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