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90 terms

Medical Terminology Chp 4

Medical Terminology Chp 4 - The Muscular System
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Muscles (Muscul/o, My/o, Myos/o)
Make body movement possible, hold body erect, move body fluids, and produce body heat.
Fascia (fasci/o)
Cover, support, and separate muscles.
Tendons (ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o)
Attach muscles to bones
bi-
prefix meaning two, twice, double
-cele
suffix meaning hernia, swelling, protrusion
dys-
bad, difficult, painful
fibr/o
fiber, fibrous tissue
-ia
state, condition
-ic
pertaining to
kines/o
movement, motion
my/o
combining form for muscle
-plegia
paralysis (loss or impairment of the ability to move parts of the body)
-rrhexis
to rupture
tax/o
order; coordination
ten/o
tendon, stretch out, extend, strain
ton/o
tone or tension
tri-
three, triple
abduction
(physiology) moving of a body part away from the central axis of the body
adduction
(physiology) moving of a body part toward the central axis of the body
adhesion
a fibrous band of scar tissue that binds together normally separate anatomical structures
ataxia
Inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary movements, resulting in shaky/tremor-like movements
atonic
lacking normal muscle tone or strength
atrophy
Any weakening or degeneration (especially through lack of use)
bradykinesia
abnormally slow movement
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
a disorder caused by compression of a nerve in the carpal tunnel (where the nerve passes through the wrist)
chronic fatigue syndrome
a disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems
circumduction
circular movement of joint, combining movements; possible in shoulder joint, hip joint, and trunk around a fixing point
contracture
the permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced with nonelastic fibrous tissues
dorsiflexion
bending of the foot or the toes upward
dyskinesia
abnormality in performing voluntary muscle movements
dystaxia
difficulty in controlling voluntary movement
dystonia
a condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement
electromyography
a diagnostic test that measures the electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation
electroneuromyography (EMG)
a diagnostic procedure for testing and recording neuromuscular activity by the electric stimulation of the nerve trunk that carries fibers to and from the muscle
epicondylitis
inflammation of the tissues around the elbow; golfer or tennis elbow
ergonomics
The study of workplace equipment design or how to arrange and design devices, machines, or workspace so that people and things interact safely and most efficiently.
exercise physiologist
a specialist who works under the supervision of a physician to develop, implement, and coordinate exercise programs, and administer medical tests to promote physical fitness
fasciitis
inflammation of the fascia; fascia is a connective tissue that surrounds muscles, groups of muscles, blood vessels, and nerves, binding those structures together in much the same manner as plastic wrap can be used to hold the contents of sandwiches together
fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS)
a debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue, diffuse and or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain, and a wide range of other symptoms
ganglion cyst
a harmless fluid-filled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist.
heel spur
Is a calcium deposit in the plantar fascia near its attachment to the calcaneus (heel) bone that can be one of the causes of plantar fasciitis
hemiparesis
slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body
hemiplegia (Hemi)
total paralysis affecting only one side of the body
hyperkinesia
abnormally increased muscle function or activity
hypertonia
condition of excessive tone of the skeletal muscles
hypokinesia
abnormally decreased muscle function or activity
hypotonia
a condition in which there is diminished tone of the skeletal muscles
impingement syndrome (IS)
occurs when the tendons become inflamed and get caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint.
intermittent claudication (IC)
characterized by leg pain and weakness brought on by walking, with the disappearance of the symptoms following a brief rest
muscular dystrophy (MD)
group of inherited muscle disorders that cause muscle weakness without affecting the nervous system
myasthenia gravis (MG)
a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles
myocele
the herniation of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it
myoclonus
the sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles
myofascial release
a specialized soft tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of conditions such as fibromyalgia, myofascial pain syndrome, movement restrictions, temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJ), and carpal tunnel syndrome
myolysis
degeneration of muscle tissue
myoparesis
weakness or partial paralysis of a muscle
myorrhaphy
surgical suturing of a muscle wound
myotonia
a neuromuscular disorder characterized by the slow relaxation of the muscles after a voluntary contraction
nocturnal myoclonus
jerking of the limbs that can occur normally as a person is falling asleep
oblique
a diagonally arranged abdominal muscle on either side of the torso
paralysis
the loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements in a muscle through disease or injury to its nerve supply
paraplegia
paralysis from the waist down caused by damage to the lower level of the spinal cord
physiatrist
a physician who specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation with the focus on restoring function
plantar faciitis
an inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole of the foot. this condition causes foot or heel pain when walking or running
polymyositis (PM)
a muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body
pronation
rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face downward
quadriplegia (Quad)
paralysis of both arms and both legs
sarcopenia
the loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that comes with aging
shin splint
is a painful condition caused by the muscle tearing away from the tibia (shin bone)
singultus
an involuntary contraction of the diaphragm followed by rapid closure of the glottis (hiccup)
spasmodic torticollis
(wryneck) a stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side
sphincter
circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening
sprain
a painful injury to a joint caused by a sudden wrenching of its ligaments
tenodesis
surgical suturing of the end of a tendon to a bone
tenodynia
pain in a tendon
tenolysis
to free a tendon from adhesions
tenorrhaphy
surgical suturing together of the divided ends of a tendon
Flexion
decreases an angle, as in bending a joint. During flexion, the knee or elbow are bent.
Elevation
Raising a body part
Rotation
Turns a bone on its axis
Supination
Turns the palm of the hand upward or forward
Extension
increases an angle, as in straightening a joint.
During extension, the knee or elbow are straightened
Depression
lowers a body part. During depression,
the depressor anguli oris lowers the corner of the mouth in a frown.
Planter flexion
bends the foot downward at the ankle
Origin
which is the less moveable attachment, is
the place where the muscle begins. The origin is located nearest the midline
Insertion
which is the more moveable attachment,
is the place where the muscle ends by attaching to a bone or tendon
neurologist
is a physician who specializes in treating the causes of paralysis and similar muscular disorders in which there is a loss of function.
rheumatologist
a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and disorders such as osteoporosis, fibromyalgia and tendonitis that are characterized by inflammation in the joints and connective tissues
Repetitive Stress Disorder (RSD)
also known as repetitive motion disorders, are a variety of muscular conditions that result from repeated motions performed in the course of normal work, daily activities, or recreation such as sports
R.I.C.E.
Rest
Ice
Compression
Elevation