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SPED 5327- Chpt. 2
Terms in this set (69)
Evidence- Based Practices
Treatments or approaches that have been found effectives through replicated research. Questions, posed, creation of a hypothesis, then it is tested. favorable results tentative treatment is evidence based.
IDEA requires schools uses _________________________, sometimes referred to as scientifically based practices, when working with students with disabilities.
Evidence based practices
What type of research is conducted for ASD and why?
Single- subject design methodologies and case studies. 1. considered a low incidence disability, hard to secure large sample, 2. due to heterogenality of population - difficult to match symptoms.
Single subject designs can present challenges regarding evidence based practices:
What is the significance of the National Autism Centers National Standards Report?
The National Standards Report serves as a single, authoritative source of guidance for parents, caregivers, educators, and service providers as they make informed intervention decisions. We are confident that these findings and recommendations will change lives and give hope and direction to people whose lives are touched by autism.
Phase one of the National Autism Centers National Standards Report
Phase 1 (released in 2009) examined and quantified the level of research supporting interventions that target the core characteristics of ASD in children, adolescents, and young adults (below 22 years of age) on the autism spectrum. 11 practices as establish practices, 22 emerging and 5 unestablished for children with ASD.
Phase two of the National Autism Centers National Standards Report
Phase 2 (released in 2015) provides an update to the literature for interventions for those under age 22, and also included studies evaluating interventions for adults (22+).
The National Professional Development Center-NPDC on Autism Spectrum disorder
The NPDC used a rigorous criteria to classify 24focused interventions as EBPs in 2010. The 24 identified EBPs have been shown through scientific research to be effective when implemented correctly with students with ASD.
In the NPDC what two subgroups were formed
behavioral teaching strategies based on the principles of ABA- Applied Behavior analysis; and positive behavioral support strategies (PBS)
Prompting-NPDC, behavior based strategies
The action of saying something to persuade, encourage, or remind someone to do or say something. Antecedent strategy based on the principles of behavior.
Reinforcement -NPDC, behavior based strategies
Describes the relationship between learner behavior and a consequence that follows the behavior. This relationship is reinforcing only if the consequence increases the likelihood the learner will perform the skill or behavior in the future. Consequence based principal of behavior.
Task analysis-NPDC, behavior based strategies
To teach a learner individual steps, the learner can become more independent using the more complex target skill or behavior.Teaching strategy that breaks down into smaller, more manageable steps and links them together during teaching.
Time Delay-NPDC, behavior based strategies
Strategy focused on fading the use of prompts during instructional activities. Can be used to increase academic, communication, social, motor, and play skills.
Computer-aided instruction-NPDC, behavior based strategies
Use of computers to teach academic, communication, and language skills with computer modeling and computer tutors.
Discrete trial training- NPDC, behavior based strategies
Instructional approach that teaches skill in a planned, controlled and systematic manner using applied behavior analysis principals.
Naturalistic interventions-NPDC, behavior based strategies
Collection of practices including environmental arrangement, interaction techniques, and strategies based on applied behavior analysis principals.
Parent-implemented interventions-NPDC, behavior based strategies
Strategies designed to increases social engagement by teaching typically developing peers to initiate and maintain interactions.
Peer-mediated instructions/ interventions-NPDC, behavior based strategies
Strategies that recognize and utilize parents as effective teachers for their children.
Picture exchanged communication system- NPDC, behavior based strategies
Practice in which learners are taught to give a picture to a communication partner in exchange for a desired item and then process through six phases of processing in complexity.
Pivotal response training- NPDC, behavior based strategies
Approach that teaches the learned to seek out and respond to naturally occurring learning opportunities using applied behavior analysis principles.
Antecedent-based interventions- NPDC, Positive behavior Support strategies
Collection of strategies win which the environment is modified and/or manipulated in order to prevent a learner from engaging in interfering behavior.
Differential reinforcement- NPDC, Positive behavior Support strategies
Behaviorally based strategy that involve reinforcing alternative, incompatible, other or lower rates for interfering behavior in order to replace it with more appropriate behavior.
Extinction- NPDC, Positive behavior Support strategies
Behaviorally based strategy that withdraws or terminates the reinforcer associates with an interfering behavior in order to eliminate it.
Functional communication training- NPDC, Positive behavior Support strategies
Systematic practice of replacing inappropriate communicative behavior with one or more socially appropriate behavior.
Functional behavior assessment- NPDC, Positive behavior Support strategies
Systematic set of strategies used to determine the underlying function or purpose of a behavior so that effective intervention can be developed.
Responses interruption/redirection- NPDC, Positive behavior Support strategies
The physical prevention or blocking of interfering behavior, predominately those that are repetitive, stereotypical, and/or self-injurious.
Self management- NPDC, Positive behavior Support strategies
Method in which learners are taught to monitor, record and report data, and reinforce their own behavior.
Social narratives- NPDC, Evidence based Practice Descriptors
Written narratives that describe social situations in some detail and highlight relevant cues offering examples of appropriate responding to help the learner adjust to the situation and adapt his/her/behavior.
Social skills training groups- NPDC, Evidence based Practice Descriptors
Small group instruction with a shared goal of learning social skills through activities such as role-ply or practice. Learners receive feedback from a teacher or adult facilitator.
Speech-generated devices- NPDC, Evidence based Practice Descriptors
Portable, electronic devices that produce synthetic or digital speech and are used as a means of communication for the user.
Structured work systems- NPDC, Evidence based Practice Descriptors
An element of structured teaching developed by TEACCH(treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication-handicapped Children) aimed at increasing independence and reduce the need for teaching correction.
Video modeling- NPDC, Evidence based Practice Descriptors
Teaching strategy that uses videos as the core component of an instruction and allows for pre-rehearsal of the target skill via observation.
Visual supports- NPDC, Evidence based Practice Descriptors
Tools presented usually that enable a learner to independently track events and activities.
What is Focused intervention
Practices or strategies that teachers and other partitioners use to teach specific educational targets, skills and concepts to children with ASD.
What is Comprehensive Treatment Model-CMT
An intervention approach that consists of a set of practices designed to achieve a broader learning of developmental impact on the core deficits of ASD. Also, known as Branded intervention, require an extended period of time, applied with intensity and contain multiple components.
Comprehensive Treatment Model-CMT is separated into three areas:
Strong model development, Partial model development and limited model development.
Strong model development means:
the overall scores, received a 5 and 4 across at least four of the dimensions-procedurally well documented, have been replicated.
Partial model development means:
Had ratings of 5 and 4 on less than four domains, but had relative strengths.
Limited model development means:
received low rates across all dimensions.
What is Applied Behavior analysis
A scientific approach to examining human behavior that relies heavily on careful observation, measurement, and recording to bring about socially valid behavior change.
Evidence based practices that fall into the category of ABA are:
Discrete trial training, modeling, naturalistic teaching, PECS, ESDM, PRT,and positive behavior support strategies.
Discrete trial Training-
A method of teaching in simplified and structured steps. Instead of teaching an entire skill in one go, the skill is broken down and "built-up" using discrete trials that teach each step one at a time. Trainer provided antecedent (instruction and/or stimulus), three term-contingency.
Three term contingency?
Refers to the antecedent, the behavioral response, and the consequence; together they make up the discrete trial. (specific skills)
Naturalistic behavioral interventions
A collection of practices including environmental arrangement, interaction techniques, and strategies based on applied behavior analysis principles. These practices are designed to encourage specific target behaviors based on learners‟ interests by building more complex skills that are naturally reinforcing and appropriate to the interaction.
Pivotal réponse training:
targets pivotal areas of a child's development, such as motivation, responsivity to multiple cues, self-management, and social initiations. -naturalistic behavior training.
Pivotal réponse training- has four key behaviors PRT aims to teach:
Being responsive to multiple cues, motivation, self-management, and self-initiation.
Early Start Denver Model-ESDM
Seeking a normal development and parental involvement; a comprehensive behavioral early intervention approach for children with autism, ages 12 to 48 months. The program encompasses a developmental curriculum that defines the skills to be taught at any given time and a set of teaching procedures used to deliver this content.
Strategies for teaching based on Autism Research -STAR
A comprehensive behavioral program, which uses applied behavioral analysis methodology provide and instructional base for training. includes coronation of three strategies: PRT, DTT, and use of functional routines instruction.
Academic interventions, auditory integration training, facilitated communication, gluten- and casein- free diets, and sensory integrative package. Currently theses treatments have little to no evidence to support their use.
Facilitated communication or supported typing
A discredited technique used by some caregivers and educators in an attempt to assist people with severe educational and communication disabilities. The technique involves providing an alphabet board, or keyboard.
Approaches/treatments that sound plausible and promise amazing results, but aren't usually supported by scientific evidence. Adopted rapidly by consumers with out validating research to support its use and eventually fades away as research disconfirms its use.
Child and family centered decision making
The decision regarding the skills to be taught, and the method through which to teach them, should be based on a valid and up-to-date assessment as well as the wants and needs of the individual child and family.
Data driven instruction
the effectiveness of any instructional approach, no matter how well documented in the research, unless data are collected and analyzed regarding its use within the frame work of an individual instructional plan.
To ensure ongoing success of a student:
The use of ABA techniques: data collection, analysis , and documentation advocated. Ongoing formative, summative evaluation, changes made for maximum success.
once skills are mastered, systematic revisited to ensure they are maintained across time.
Threefold goal for systematic generalization
1. max & age-appropriate participation in the natural environment; 2. age-appropriate and functional; 3. intervention should support child & family max potential now & in the future.
What is the ultimate goal for an educational program?
To provide the student with the skills necessary to the maximally independent functioning with in their natural environment.
What are the four principals to Educating students with ASD
Principal of self-determination, independence, normalization and functionality.
Self-determination: individuals are said to be self determined if they can:
(a) make choices, (b) make decisions about their actions, (c) set goals for themselves, (d) recognize their own abilities (strengths and needs), and (e) advocate for themselves.
Why is self determination not equivalent to independence?
A person can still receive support and be self-determined. Still need to encourage a voice and choices.
What aids in decision making?
Awareness and understanding of their own abilities and limitations.
Occurs in individuals when they become conditioned to allowing others to make decisions and do things for them.
Principal of independence: independence is achieved :
When one uses only those supports that are necessary for functioning; and may not be achieved until persons have opportunities to do things for themselves in a natural setting and provided training to do so.
Occurs when the activities, materials, and settings in which a person engages are the same as those in which persons with out a disability of the same age, gender, and culture are engaged.
What are steps of normalization?
1. opportunity; 2. teachers and families need to ensure once in the environment, the child has the necessary skills to engage in same or similar activities as others. 3. teachers/family need to make sure behavioral differences do not pose a barrier to fitting in.
(principal) Functionality: a skill is said to be functional when:
Someone has to do the skill for the child if the child cannot do it for themselves. only if the child needs to do this in everyday life in a natural environment.
(principal) Functionality may also include:
meaningful to the child, necessary for current or future independence, promote opportunities to fit in with age and cultural groups.
Determining appropriate strategies for students:
Research supports ABA as the evidence-based strategy for working with students with ASD, determination of the exact combination of strategies from the differing perspectives must be made on an individual basis.
Why would it be unethical to prescribe a combination of strategies for each student with ASD?
each student has their own unique needs, which may be addressed in a number of different ways.
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